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2. aero (also written ēro), ōnis, m., = αἴρω, a braided or wicker basket, hamper: aerones ex ulva palustri facti, Vitr. 5, 12: aeronibus harenae plenis, Plin. 36, 14, 21, § 96; Dig. 19, 2, 31; cf. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 72.

aerumna, ae (pleb. er-), f. [contr. from aegrimonia; as to the suppressed g, cf. jumentum from jugum, Doed. Syn. IV. p. 420. Others explain aerumna (with Paul. ex Fest. s. v. aerumnula, p. 24 Müll.) orig. for a frame for carrying burdens upon the back; hence trop.],

  1. I. need, want, trouble, toil, hardship, distress, tribulation, calamity, etc. (objectively; while aegrimonia, like aegritudo, denotes, subjectively, the condition of mind, Doed. 1. c.; for the most part only ante-class., except in Cic., who uses it several times, in order to designate by one word the many modifications and shadings of the condition of mental suffering; in Quintilian’s time the word was obsolete, v. Quint. 8, 3, 26): tibi sunt ante ferendae aerumnae, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 47 Vahl.); cf.: Ilia dia nepos, quas erumnas tetulisti, id. ap. Charis. p. 70 P. (Ann. v. 56 ib.): quantis cum aerumnis exantlavi diem, id. ap. Non. 292, 8 (Trag. v. 127 ib.): uno ut labore absolvat aerumnas duas (of the pains of parturition), Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 26: animus aequos optimum est aerumnae condimentum, id. Rud. 2, 3, 71; id. Ep. 2, 1, 10; so, id. Capt. 5, 4, 12; id. Curc. 1, 2, 54; id. Pers. 1, 1, 1: lapit cor cura, aerumna corpus conficit, Pac. ap. Non. 23, 8; Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 8; Lucr. 3, 50: aerumna gravescit, id. 4, 1065: quo pacto adversam aerumnam ferant, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 12: maeror est aegritudo flebilis: aerumna aegritudo laboriosa: dolor aegritudo crucians, Cic. Tusc. 4, 8, 18: Herculis aerumnas perpeti: sic enim majores nostri labores non fugiendos tristissimo tamen verbo aerumnas etiam in Deo nominaverunt, id. Fin. 2, 35; cf. id. ib. 5, 32, 95: mors est aerumnarum requies, Sall. C. 51, 20; so id. J. 13, 22: Luculli miles collecta viatica multis Aerumnis, ad assem Perdiderat, with much difficulty, * Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 26: multiplicabo aerumnas tuas, Vulg. Gen. 3, 16: in labore et aerumnā (fui), ib. 2 Cor. 11, 27.
  2. II. In later Lat. for defeat (of an army), Amm. 15, 4; cf. id. 15, 8 al.
    Note: At a later period, also, ĕrumna was written with short e, Paulin. Petric. Vit. D. Mart. 1, 66. Hence, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 76 P. derives it from eruere (quod mentem eruat). Cf. Doed. Syn. IV. p. 420.

aescŭlētum (not esc-), i, n. [aesculus],

  1. I. a forest of winter or Italian oaks, and poet., in gen., an oak-forest, Hor. C. 1, 22, 14.
  2. II. Esp.: Aescŭlētum, i, n., a place in Rome, acc. to Varr. L. L. 5, § 152 Müll.; Plin. 16, 10, 15, § 37.

aescŭlĕus (not esc-), a, um, adj. [aesculus], of the Italian oak, and poet., in gen., of oak: aesculeae capiebat frondis honorem, i. e. an oaken garland, Ov. M. 1, 449; so Pall. 1, 9.

* aescŭlīnus (not esc-), a, um, adj. [aesculus], = aesculeus, Vitr. 7, 1.

aescŭlus (not esc-), i, f. [may be connected with edo = to eat, as fagus = beech, φηγός = oak, with φαγεῖν, but the diphthong presents a difficulty; v. Curt. p. 187], the tallest species of oak, the winter or Italian oak (with edible acorns), sacred to Jupiter, Verg. G. 2, 16; 291; ef. Voss. ad h. l.: nec mollior aesculo, Hor. C. 3, 10, 17 al.

Aesernĭa (Es-), ae, f., a town in Samnium, on the river Vulturnus, now Isernia, Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, § 2; Vell. 1, 14; Liv. Epit. 72, 73 al.
Hence, Aesernīnus, a, um, adj. pertaining to or a native of, Æsernia: ager, Liv. 10, 31: turma, id. 44, 40.
Also a surname of M. Marcellus, who was taken prisoner there by the Samnites, Liv. Epit. 73; Plin. 12, 1, 5, § 12.
Aesernīni, ōrum, m., the inhabitants of Æsernia, Liv. 27, 10.
Aeserninus was also the name of a renowned gladiator; hence the proverb: Aeserninus cum Pacidiano, one champion against another, when two equally great men are compared together or engaged in mutual conflict, Lucil. ap. Non. 393, 28; Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 4; id. Opt. Gen. Orat. 6 (cf.: cum Bitho Bacchius, Hor. S. 1, 7, 20).

ămussis, is, f. [etym. unc.; perh. from am- and assis = axis, a plank, i. e. something flat, straight, moved about a surface in adjusting it] (acc. amussim, v. Neue, Formenl. I. p. 198; abl. and plur. not used; only ante- and post-class.), a rule or level, used by carpenters, masons, etc.: amussis: tabula, quā utuntur ad saxa leviganda, Varr. ap. Non. p. 9, 17; Aus. Idyll. 16, 11; cf. Sisenn. ap. Charis. p. 178 P.; Paul. ex Fest. p. 6 Müll.
In class. Lat. in the adv. phrases,

  1. I. ad ămussim (also written as one word, ad-ămussim or ătamussim), according to a rule or level, i. e. accurately, exactly: adamussim non est numerus, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 26: talionem ad amussim aequiparare, Gell. 20, 1, 34 Hertz: ut judicium esse factum atamussim diceres, id. 1, 4, 1 id.
  2. II. exămussim, according to a rule, exactly, quite: Ne ista edepol, si vera haec loquitur, examussimst optuma, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 213 (with the forms adamussim and examussim, cf. the Gr. ἐκποδών and ἐμποδών).

2. Castor, ŏris (acc. to some gramm. Castōris, Quint. 1, 5, 60), m., = Κάστωρ.

  1. I. The son of the Spartan king Tyndarus and Leda, brother of Helena and Pollux, with whom, as twin star (Gemini; hence even Castores, Plin. 10, 43, 60, § 121; 35, 4, 10, § 27; 7, 22, 22, § 86; and: alter Castor, Stat. S. 4, 6, 16), he served as a guide to mariners, Varr. L. L. 5, § 58; Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 6; 3, 18, 45; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 5; id. Epod. 17, 42; 17, 43; id. C. 4, 5, 35: gaudet equis, id. S. 2, 1, 26; cf. id. C. 1, 12, 25, and Ov. M. 12, 401: ad Castoris (sc. aedem), on the forum, Cic. Mil. 33, 91; where pecuniary affairs were transacted, id. Quint. 4, 17; cf. Juv. 14, 260.
  2. II. Derivv.
    1. A. In oaths: ecastor and mecastor [the old interj. e or the pron. acc. me, prefixed; cf.: equidem, edepol; mehercle, medius fiduis, etc., v. Corss. Ausspr. II. p. 856 sq.], by Castor, an oath in very frequent use, especially by women, though not exclusively by them, as asserted by Gell. 11, 6, 1, and Charis. p. 183 P.; cf. Plaut. As. 5, 2, 46; 5, 2, 80; id. Cas. 5, 4, 13: ecastor, re experior, quanti facias uxorem tuam, id. Am. 1, 3, 10; 1, 3, 39; id. Cist. 4, 2, 61; id. Truc. 2, 5, 28; id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Stich. 1, 3, 89; id. As. 1, 3, 36; id. Truc. 2, 2, 60; id. As. 3, 1, 30; id. Stich. 1, 3, 81: ecastor vero, id. Merc. 4, 1, 25: per ecastor scitus (i. e. perscitus ecastor) puer est natus Pamphilo, Ter. And. 3, 2, 6: nec nunc mecastor quid hero ego dicam queo comminisci, Plaut. Aul, 1, 1, 28; cf. id. Merc. 4, 1, 6; id. Cas. 2, 3, 30; id. Men. 4, 2, 50; id. Mil. 1, 1, 63; cf. also id. Stich. 1, 3, 86; id. Truc. 2, 2, 36; 2, 7, 30; 3, 2, 11; 4, 4, 9; 5, 1, 26: Sy. Salve, mecastor, Parmenio. Pa. Et tu, edepol, Syra, Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 8 Don.
    2. B. Ad Castŏris or Lŏcus Ca-stŏrum, nom. propr., a place in Upper Italy, between Cremona and Bedriacum, where stood a shrine of Castor and Pollux, Suet. Oth. 9; Tac. H. 2, 24.
    3. C. Castŏrĕus, a, um, adj. of Castor: manus, Sen. Hippol. 810.
  3. III. A companion of Æneas, Verg. A. 10, 124.
  4. IV. The grandson of king Deiotarus, Cic. Deiot. 1, 2, 10; 1, 2, 28 sq.
  5. V. Castor Tarcondarius, a chieftain of Gallogrœcia, ally of Pompey, Caes. B. C. 3, 4.
  6. VI. Antonius Castor, an author on botany, Plin. 25, 17, 66, § 174; 25, 2, 5, § 9.

contrā, adv. and prep. [stem con, i. e. cum, through a comparative form conter; cf.: alter, uter, inter, praeter, etc.; in abl. fem. form like the locative adverbs , quā, etc.; cf.: ultrā, intrā, extrā, citrā], orig., in comparison with; hence, over against, fronting, in front, opposite, in opposition to, against, contrary to, opposed to, etc.

  1. I. Adv. (referring to an opposed object often with the force of a preposition with ellipsis of a pronoun, = against it, against him, etc.).
    1. A. Local.
      1. 1. Lit., of position in front of a person, place, or thing.
        1. a. With verb of being or position expressed or understood.
          1. (α) Referring to living beings, opposite, in face of, face to face, facing, in front of, fronting, confronting (not in Cic., Caes., or Sall.): feminam scelestam te, adstans contra, contuor, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 26: ut confidenter mihi contra adstitit, id. Capt. 3, 5, 6; Lucr. 4, 223; 6, 929: signum contra, quoad longissume oculi ferebant, animo finivit, Liv. 1, 18, 8: stat contra starique jubet, Juv. 3, 290: stat contra dicitque tibi tua pagina Fures! Mart. 1, 55, 12: ulmus erat contra, in front of her, Ov. M. 14, 661: templa vides contra, in front (of us), id. ib. 7, 587.
            Of position in front of the enemy: contra consertā manu, Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 3: contra consistere, to make front against them, Caes. B. G. 2, 17.
          2. (β) Referring to things and places, over against (it), opposite (to it), on the opposite side (mostly post-Aug.): contra jacet Cancer patulam distentus in alvum, Manil. 2, 253: positā contra Hispaniā, Tac. Agr. 11: promuntorium quod contra procedit, Plin. 4, 2, 3, § 6: relinquendae autem contra erunt vacuae tabellae, on the opposite side, i. e. of the leaf, Quint. 10, 3, 32: illo quaerente cur non decidant contra siti, the antipodes (cf. Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; v. II. A. 1. c. α), Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161.
            With the governing verb understood: arguam hanc vidisse apud te contra conservum meum, face to face, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 91: jam omnia contra circaque hostium plena erant, Liv 5, 37, 8: eadem verba contra (i. e. ponuntur), side by side, Quint. 9, 3, 36; Verg. A. 6, 23.
        2. b. With verbs of motion, so as to be opposite to an object or face to face with a person, variously rendered.
          1. (α) Referring to persons: accede ad me atque adi contra, come right up to me, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 23; id. Bacch. 3, 6, 6: hostes crebri cadunt; nostri contra ingruunt, advance to their front (in Plàut. hostility is not implied in contra), id. Am. 1, 1, 84: quis nos pater aut cognatu’ volet contra tueri, face to face, eye to eye, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 12 Müll. (Trag. Rel. v. 444 Rib.); Att. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 55 (Trag. Rel. v. 538 ib.): adspicedum contra me = contra adspice me, Plaut. Most. 5, 1, 56 Lorenz ad lec.: contra adspicere, id. Mil. 2, 1, 45: contra intueri, Liv. 1, 16, 6; 9, 6, 8; Sen. Q. N. 1, 3, 6: cum veniret contra Marcianus, Quint. 6, 3, 95; Plin. 9, 46, 70, § 152.
          2. (β) Of things: hic ubi sol radiisAdversā fulsit nimborum aspergine contra, Lucr. 6, 525; Cels. 8, 8, 1: quam (turrim) promoti contra validi asseresperfregere, Tac. H. 4, 30.
            Reciprocally: oscula non pervenientia contra, not coming through (the wall) so as to meet, Ov. M. 4, 80.
      2. 2. Transf. to equivalents of weight, value, and price; so,
          1. (α) In Plaut. only in the colloq. phrases auro contra, aurichalco contra, and contra auro (sc. posito); lit., for gold placed against; cf.: aes contrarium, s. v. contrarius: (servus) non carus’st auro contra, at his weight in gold, Plaut. Ep. 3, 3, 30: jam auro contra constat filius, id. Truc. 2, 6, 57 (Speng. aurichalco): auro contra cedo modestum amatorem! A me aurum accipe. Pa. Cedo mihi contra aurichalco quoi ego sano serviam, id. Curc. 1, 3, 45 sq.; id. Mil. 3, 1, 63; 4, 2, 85; id. Ps. 2, 3, 23.
          2. (β) In post-Aug. prose (very rare): at si aquae et ejus rei quam contra pensabis par pondus erit, nec pessum ibit, nec exstabit, etc., Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.
      3. 3. Of reciprocal actions, = vicissim, in turn, in return, back, on my, his, etc., part, likewise, counter-.
          1. (α) In gen.: te ut deludam contra, lusorem meum, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 71: quae me amat, quam ego contra amo, id. Merc. 5. 2, 77; id. Cist. 1, 1, 96; id. Trin. 4, 2, 55; id. As. 2, 2, 110: qui arguat se, eum contra vincat jurejurando suo, make a victorious counter-charge, id. Mil. 2, 2, 37: si laudabit haec Illius formam, tu hujus contra (i. e. lauda), Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 54: audi nunc contra jam, listen in turn, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 18; id. Ad. 5, 4, 23: at tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, Cui, etc., you likewise seem fortunate to me, id. Phorm. 1, 3, 21: Mettius Tullo gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne alloquitur, Liv. 1, 28, 1: contra ut me diligat illa, Cat. 76. 23; Hor. S. 1, 3, 27 Orell. ad loc.
            Hence, with ellipsis of inquit, = respondit: cui latrans contra senex, Phaedr. 5, 10, 7: scietis, inquam, etc., contra Nigrinus: ad quem missi sunt? ego, etc., Plin. Ep. 7, 6, 4.
            Rarely with inquit, etc., expressed: at ille contra, renidens, Audi, inquit, discipule, etc., Gell. 15, 9, 9; cf.: contra talia reddit, Claud. B. Gild. 379.
          2. (β) With dat. pers.: consulo quem dolum doloso contra conservo parem, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 45: facere contra huic aegre, Ter. Eun. 4, 1, 10: hiscine contra insidiabere? id. Hec. 1. 1, 13: tibi contra gratiam Referre, id. ib. 4, 2, 7.
          3. (γ) With item: item a me contra factum est, Plaut. Aul. prol. 20: puellam senex Amat et item contra filius, id. Cas. prol. 49; id. Pers. 5, 2, 36; id. Am. 1, 1, 67; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 25.
          4. (δ) Combining a reciprocal with a local relation (A. 1. a. α, and b. α): contra carinantes verba, exchanging abusive words (face to face), Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 8, 361 (Ann. v. 181 Vahl.): tubae utrimque contra canunt; Consonat terra, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 73; 1, 1, 86: confer gradum Contra pariter, id. Ps. 2, 4, 18; id. Truc. 1, 2, 28: video amicamUbi contra adspexit me, etc., id. Mil. 2, 1, 45; Verg. E. 7, 8; cf. Lucr. 4, 243: vesper adest, juvenes consurgite! … Cernitis, innuptae, juvenes? consurgite contra! Cat. 62, 6.
            (ε) Implying also opposition: Pe. Conpellabo. Ph. Orationis aciem contra conferam, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 20: si scias quod donum huic dono contra comparet, what counter gift, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 63: quod Scipio postulavitut, etc. Et quod contra collega postulavit ne, etc., Annal. Trib. Pleb. ap. Gell. 7 (6), 19, 5: si vobis aequa et honesta postulatio videtur, ego contra brevem postulationem adfero, Cic. Rosc. Am. 2, 7; Nep. Epam. 6, 1; Auct. B. Alex. 24: illo licente contra liceri audeat nemo, to bid in opposition, Caes. B. G. 1, 18; Liv. 4, 53, 6: agedum pauca accipe contra, Hor. S. 1, 4, 38.
            So in battle: NumidaeRomanorum ordines conturbareneque contra feriundi copia erat, Sall. J. 50, 4; and in law: et ab eo is qui adoptat vindicatet illo contra non vindicante, etc., Gai Inst. 1, 134; 2, 24.
            Esp. in replies: oratio contra a Demosthene pro Ctesiphonte edita, Cic. de Or. 3, 56, 213: dicit accusator haec: primum, etc. … quid contra reus? id. Clu. 30, 81; id. Fin. 5, 22, 63; Curt. 4, 1, 10; 7, 9, 1.
    2. B. Of opposition, strife, etc., against; constr. absol., with dat., and ne, quominus or quin.
      1. 1. Of physical exertion.
          1. (α) Lit.: concurruntaetheriae nubes contra pugnantibu’ ventis, struggling against each other, Lucr. 6. 98: nec nos obniti contraSufficimus, bear up, battle against, Verg. A. 5, 21; Ov. M. 9, 50; 2, 434: at ille contra nititur, resists, Plin. 2, 38, 38, § 103; 7, 20, 19, § 82: pars remigum, tamquam imperitiāofficia nautarum impediebant. Mox contra tendere, rowed in an opposite direction, Tac. H. 4, 16.
          2. (β) Trop.: te rogo ne contrahas ac demittas animum, neque te obrui tamquam fluctusinas, contraque erigas ac resistas, Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 4: et torrens judicem vel nitentem contra feret, cogatque ire quā rapiet, Quint. 12, 10, 61.
            With ne: vi contra niti, ne advorsus eum fiat, Cato ap. Gell. 7 (6), 3, 16.
            With quominus, Lucr. 1, 780.
      2. 2. Of mental exertion: si tibi vera videntur, Dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra, arm yourself against them, Lucr. 2, 1043; 2, 280.
        With dat.: siti contrapugnandum, Cels. 4, 2 fin.
      3. 3. Of hostile opposition in gen.
          1. (α) Lit.: quod animadversum est in eo qui contra omni ratione pugnarunt, non debeo reprehendere, who made opposition in every way, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 137; id. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107: contra etiam aliquid abs te profectum ex multis audivi, something inimical, id. Fam. 5, 5, 2.
          2. (β) Trop.: aut alio quovis (sc. colore) qui contra pugnet et obstet, Lucr. 2, 794; 2, 868.
      4. 4. Of warfare.
          1. (α) Lit.: ut eos adversarios existimemus qui arma contra ferant, Cic. Off. 1, 25, 87; 1, 12, 37; Vell. 2, 28, 4; cf.: quid quod exercitum contra duxit? Auct. Her. 4, 16, 23: ut si quā ex parte obviam contra veniretur, acie instructā depugnarent, if they should be attacked by an open charge, Caes. B. G. 7, 28: issentque confestim ad urbem ni venire contra exercitumaudissent, Liv. 7, 39, 17: cum Romanae legiones contra direxerint, would oppose their march, Tac. H. 4, 58; id. A. 6, 44.
            With dat.: et huic contra itum ad amnem Erinden, Tac. A. 11, 10.
          2. (β) Trop.: quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur, velut adversus communem hostem, Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 205.
      5. 5. Of legal contests.
          1. (α) With verbs of saying; v. 9. a.
          2. (β) Venire contra, of any legal act with the intention to hurt the adversary: quid? si omnium mortalium Sthenio nemo inimicior quam hic C. Claudiusfuit? si de litteris corruptis contra venit, etc.? if he made a charge of forgery against him? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 43, § 107; cf. II. B. c. β.
          3. (γ) On the part of the adversary: inveniendum contra est, quo distet haec causa a ceteris, Quint. 5, 10, 114; 9, 2, 35; 12, 8, 10.
          4. (δ) Of judgments against the parties or against opinions: ne spoliaret famā probatum hominem si contra judicasset, given an adverse decision, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; cf. Val. Max. 7, 2, 4; Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.
      6. 6. Of literary opposition.
          1. (α) Mostly with verbs of saying; v. 9. a. γ.
          2. (β) With other verbs: astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit, Lucr. 5, 728: contra nunc illud pone, etc., Sen. Ben. 7, 14, 6: habeat (liber meus) etiam quosdam qui contra sentiant et adversentur, some dissentients and opponents, Quint. 3, 1, 5; 2, 17, 40; 3, 8, 69.
      7. 7. Of public and political opposition.
          1. (α) With verbs of saying; v. 9. a. δ.
          2. (β) With petere, to be a candidate for office in opposition to another: nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent, no office was left for which to canvass against each other, Cic. Agr. 2, 33, 91: honores contra petere, Quint. 6, 1, 17.
            With ire, with dat., of an opposing vote in the senate (cf.: pedibus ire): sententia Cassii ut nemo unus contra ire ausus est, ita dissonae voces respondebant, Tac. A. 14, 45.
      8. 8. Of violation of law, contracts, etc.: contra facere, or contra committere, to violate, transgress a law, etc.: leges esse non ex ejus qui contra commiserit utilitate, spectari oportere, not in the interest of the transgressor, Cic. Inv. 2, 48, 153: si quis sub hoc pacto vendiderit ancillam ne prostitueretur, et si contra factum esset, and if the contract was violated, Dig. 18, 1, 56.
      9. 9. With verbs of saying, etc., contra dicere; less freq. disputare, disserere, pugnare, in the sense of dicere, and contra scribere (often contradico, in one word, in post-Aug. writers; esp. with dat.).
        1. a. Absol.
          1. (α) Contra dicere, to speak as counsel of the adversary, to plead his cause, in legal proceedings: cum contra dicturus Hortensius esset, would speak on the other side, Cic. Quint. 24, 77: hoccontra dicente Cottā judicatum est, id. Caecin. 33, 97: dixisse ut contra nemo videretur, id. Brut. 53, 198: ut contra Crassusexorsus est, began on the other side, id. ib. § 197.
            Hence: qui contra dicit, the adversary or counsel of the adversary: contra autem qui dicet, similitudinem infirmare debebit, Cic. Inv. 2, 50, 151; id. Part. Or. 21, 108.
            In the same sense: agens contra: si nosimpares agentium contra ingeniis dixerimus, that we are unequal to the talents of our adversary’s counsel, Quint. 4, 1, 8.
          2. (β) To make charges against (rare): si qui contra vellet dicere, usurum esse eum suo testimonio, Cic. Clu. 48, 134: quā ratione nemo neque tum item fecerit, neque nunc contra dicat, id. Quint. 29, 88; so, contra disputare, of objections to or against a witness: nihil contra disputabo priusquam dixerit, id. Fl. 21, 51.
          3. (γ) In gen., to speak on the other side of a question: fiebat autem ita, ut cum is qui audire vellet dixisset quid sibi videretur, tum ego contra dicerem, Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; id. Fin. 2, 1, 2; so, contra disputare and contra scribere, id. Or. 1, 19, 85; Vitr. 3, 1, 6; Quint. 2, 17, 13; Dig. 9, 2, 21, § 1.
            Hence: qui contra dicunt or disputant, the opponents: nec qui contra dicunt causam difficilem repellunt, Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 2: ad coarguendos qui contra disputant, to refule his opponents, Quint. 2, 15, 26.
          4. (δ) To oppose or object to a proposition, motion, or petition: quam palam principes dixerunt contra! protested against it, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 16, § 41; Caes. B. C. 1, 32; Cic. Clu. 47, 130.
            With pugnare: cum decerneretur frequenti senatu, contra pugnante Pisone, etc., Cic. Att. 1, 14, 5: filius ejus incolumitatem optat: contradicit pater, the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 85; 9, 2, 83; Plin. ap. Gell. 9, 16, 5; Cic. Dom. 33, 87: contradicente nullo, Suet. Caes. 20; Dig. 3, 3, 15.
            (ε) To reply: contradixit edicto, answered by an edict, Suet. Aug. 56.
            (ζ) Abl. absol. impers.: explorandum videtur an etiam contradicto aliquando judicio consuetudo firmata sit, whether the custom has been confirmed by judgment upon a judicial contest, Dig. 1, 3, 34.
        2. b. With acc. neutr. pron., to object, to make or raise an objection, to reply; esp. in legal proceedings: ego enim, te disputante, quid contra dicerem meditabar, Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 1: ut contra si quid dicere velit non audiatur, id. Fin. 5, 10, 27: aiebat illum primo sane diu multa contra (i. e. dixisse), ad extremum autem, etc., id. Att. 2, 22, 2.
          Hence: quod contra dicitur, or quae contra dicuntur, the objections: ut et id quod intenderemus confirmare, et id quod contra diceretur refellere (possemus), refute the objections, Cic. de Or. 1, 20, 90: quia neque reprehendi quae contra dicuntur possunt, etc., id. ib. 2, 81, 331; id. Inv. 2, 44, 127; Quint. 1, 2, 17.
          In the same sense, as subst.: contrā dicta, ōrum, n. plur.: seu proposita confirmamus, sive contra dicta dissolvimus, or refute the objections, Quint. 4, prooem. 6.
          With acc. and inf.: dicitur contra, nullum esse testamentum, the objection is made that there is no testament, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 42.
        3. c. With dat., written in one word (post-Aug.).
          1. (α) To oppose a person by speaking against his views: solitum se etiam Thraseae contradicere, to oppose even Thrasea, Tac. H. 2, 91: tibi, Suet. Aug. 54: Curioni … , id. Rhet. 1.
            Hence of answers and replies in law: quid si filium testatoris heres ejus prohibuit? Huic contradici potest: ergo pietatis, etc., he may be answered by this plea, etc., Dig. 11, 7, 14, § 13.
            And of advisory answers opposed to one’s legal views: volenti mihi ream adulterii postulare eam, etc., contradictum est, my views were disapproved, rejected, Dig. 48, 5, 11, § 10.
          2. (β) To oppose an opinion, with dat. of the thing: cum plures tantum sententiis aliorum contradicerent, opposed the opinions, Tac. H. 1, 39.
          3. (γ) To object to a motion or petition, with dat. of the petitioner: patrem qui damnavit optat ne is torqueatur: pater ei contradicit, the father objects, Quint. 9, 2, 81: cum ambienti ut legibus solveretur multi contradicerent, Suet. Caes. 18; Dig. 40, 5, 14; 40, 12, 33.
          4. (δ) With dat. of the petition: preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset, which could not be denied, Tac. H. 4, 46 fin.; Dig. 3, 1, 1, § 2.
            (ε) To contest the validity of a law (rare): quibus (legibus) contradici potest, Quint. 7, 7, 4.
            (ζ) To contradict an assertion (very rare): pro certis autem habemuscuicunque adversarius non contradicit, Quint. 5, 10, 13.
        4. d. With quin, to object: praetor Samnitibus responditnec contra dici quin amicitia de integro reconcilietur, there was no objection to a reconciliation, Liv. 8, 2, 2.
    3. C. To one’s disadvantage; mostly predic. with esse, unfavorable, adverse, damaging (post-Aug.; but cf. II. B. 2.): ut eum qui responsurus est vel tacere, vel etiam invitum id quod sit contra cogat fateri, Quint. 7, 3, 14: cum verba (legis) contra sint, id. 7, 1, 49: sed experimentum contra fuit, unsuccessful, Tac. H. 2, 97 fin.: ubi fortuna contra fuit, id. ib. 3, 18: si fortuna contra daret, should be unfavorable, id. ib. 1, 65 fin.; id. A. 15, 13.
    4. D. Of logical opposition, with negative force.
      1. 1. Of a direct contrast.
        1. a. Predicatively, with esse, fieri, etc., the contrary, the opposite: quod fieri totum contra manifesta docet res, but experience teaches that just the contrary is true, Lucr. 3, 686; 4, 1088: in stultitiā contra est, with fools the reverse is true, Cic. Clu. 31, 84: in hac quidem re vereor ne etiam contra (i. e. sit), id. Att. 12, 46; id. Off. 1, 15, 49: quod contra est, Sall. J. 85, 21: quis non credat, etc.? Contra autem est, Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 12; id. Ep. 7, 3; Dig. 37, 4, 4: contra fore si, etc., ib. 34, 2, 39, § 2: immo forsitan et contra (i. e. erit), ib. 41, 3, 49: ego contra puto (i. e. esse), Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 7; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 25.
        2. b. With evenire, accidere, sentire, scribere, habere, etc.: utrumque contra accidit: istic enim bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta, of both the contrary has happened, Cic. Fam. 12, 18, 2; so Dig. 38, 2, 51: id ego contra puto (sc.: faciendum esse), id. Att. 10, 8, 2: contra evenit in iis morbis, Sen. Ep. 52, 7; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 163: ego contra sentio, Sen. Clem. 1, 15, 5; Sedig. ap. Gell. 15, 24, 4; Dig. 40, 2, 25: Proculus contra (sc. sentit), ib. 35, 2, 1, § 14; 33, 7, 25: licet Celsus contra scribat, ib. 9, 2, 21, § 1: contra probatur, Gai Inst. 2, 78; Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 34.
          Very rarely referring to a term in the same clause: cujus disparem mitioremque naturam contra interpretabatur, interpreted in an opposite sense, misinterpreted, misunderstood, Tac. H. 4, 86 fin.
        3. c. Referring to a word or phrase in the same predicate.
          1. (α) To an adverb, in an opposite manner, otherwise, differently, not, etc.: nam ad summam totius rei pertinet, caute an contra demonstrata res sit, Cic. de Or. 2, 81, 330: quod viriliter animoque fit, id, etc.; quod contra, id turpe, id. Off. 1, 27, 94: sit sapienter usus aut contra, Quint. 2, 5, 15: lactuca locis apricis optume autumno ponitur, mediterraneis aut frigidis contra ( = pessime), Col. 11, 3, 25.
          2. (β) To a predicative adjective, not, the opposite, the reverse, etc.: ut aliae (res) probabiles videantur aliae contra, improbable, Cic. Ac. 2, 32, 103; id. Off. 2, 2, 7: quid est quod me impediat ea quae probabilia mihi videantur sequi, quae contra, improbare, id. ib. 2, 2, 8; id. Or. 2, 31, 135; Quint. 4, 2, 52.
          3. (γ) To a verbal predicate: an frater fratri exsistat heres, an contra ( = annon), Dig. 34, 5, 19.
          4. (δ) To a subject infinitive: laudare testem vel contra pertinet ad momentum judiciorum, praising or censuring a witness, Quint. 3, 7, 2.
            (ε) To a clause, translated by not or by a repetition of the clause with a negative: quae secundum naturam essent, ea sumenda et quādam aestimatione dignanda docebat, contraque contraria, those that were not, not, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 36: quod cuidam aut sapiens videor quod una non jerim, aut felix fuisse; mihi contra, id. Att. 9, 12, 4: an credibile est, incestum cum filiā commissum? Et contra, veneficum in novercā, adulterum in luxurioso? and incredible, etc., Quint. 5, 10, 19; so Dig. 9, 1, 2, § 1.
            (ζ) To an attributive genitive: Marius cognoscere quid boni utrisque or contra esset (i. e. mali), Sall. J. 88, 2: verum de origine laudis contraque perspiciemus suo tempore (i. e. vituperationis), Quint. 2, 4, 21: alii a propositione accusatoris contraque loci oriuntur, the accuser and the accused, id. 7, 2, 31; so in several titles of the Digests, as Depositi vel contra, = actio depositi, vel contraria actio depositarii, Dig. 16, 3 tit.; so ib. 16, 17, 1; 16, 13, 6; 16, 13, 7.
      2. 2. Reversing the relation of terms in the preceding sentence, the reverse, conversely, vice versā, etc.
        1. a. With its own predicate: saepecorpus aegret, Cum tamen ex aliā laetamur parte latenti; Et retro fit uti contra sit saepe vicissim, Cum miser ex animo laetatur corpore toto, Lucr. 3, 108: illa altera argumentatio, quasi retro et contra, prius sumit, etc., (proceeding), so to speak, backward and in inverted order, Cic. Part. Or. 13, 46: neque illud ignoro, etc.; sed non idem accidit contra, but the converse is not true, Quint. 8, 6, 3; Gell. 4, 2, 5: ut vocabula verbis, verba rursus adverbiis, nomina appositis et pronominibus essent priora. Nam fit contra quoque frequenter non indecore. for often, not inelegantly, the order is reversed, Quint. 9, 4, 24: quae etiam contra valent, i. e. if the terms are reversed, id. 3, 7, 25; 9, 2, 49; 8, 6, 25; 9, 4, 72.
        2. b. Belonging to the same predicate: ut quidque erit dicendum ita dicet, nec satura jejune, nec grandia minute, nec item contra, Cic. Or. 36, 123: cum emtor venditori, vel contra, heres exstitit, Dig. 35, 2, 48: in quibus patrium pro possessivo dicitur, vel contra, Quint. 1, 5, 45; 5, 10, 71: junguntur autem aut ex nostro et peregrino, ut biclinium, aut contra, ut epitogium et Anticato, id. 1, 5, 68: ut capras in montosis potius locis quam in herbidis (pascar), equas contra, but with mares the reverse is the case, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 16: itaque ille dicere melius quam praecipere, nos contra fortasse possumus, Cic. Or. 42, 143: qua collegi solent ex his quae faciunt ea quae faciuntur, aut contra, or vice versā, Quint. 5, 10, 80; Dig. 14, 1, 1, § 12; 48, 5, 23, § 4.
    5. E. In logical antithesis of clauses with a merely rhet. force, on the contrary, on the other hand, vice versā; sometimes almost = sed or autem (freq.).
      1. 1. In independent clauses.
        1. a. Opposing persons or parties: fortunam insanam esseperhibent philosophiSunt autem alii philosophi qui contra Fortunam negant ullam exstare, Pac. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 23, 36 (Trag. Rel. v. 372 Rib.); Caecil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 32, 68; Varr. R. R. 1, 8, 1: ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sumTu, contra, ne quae ille quidem fecit, obicies, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 11, 35: ego contra ostendo, non modo nihil fecisse Sex. Roscium, sed, etc., id. Rosc. Am. 29, 79; id. Phil. 8, 3, 8; id. Off. 1, 30, 108; id. Fin. 5, 22, 62: in Italiā bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostroHannibal contra in alienā, in hostili est terrā, Liv. 22, 39, 13; 21, 50, 2; 3, 15, 2; 6, 7, 4; 9, 35, 4 et saep.; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; Vell. 2, 31, 4; Sen. Ep. 9, 14; id. Ira, 2, 33, 6; Plin. 35, 10, 37, § 113; Tac. H. 3, 84; 3, 57; Suet. Tib. 2; id. Vit. 2; Just. 2, 1, 10; 8, 4, 11: contra mercator, navim jactantibus austris Militia est potior? Hor. S. 1, 1, 6; 1, 2, 30; 1, 3, 27; Prop. 2, 1, 45; 2, 23, 13 (3, 17, 3); Sen. Hippol. 214; so with versā vice: barbarae gentes (Alexandrum) non ut hostem, sed ut parentem luxeruntContra Macedones versā vice non ut civem, sed ut hostem amissum gaudebant, Just. 13, 1, 7.
        2. b. Introducing a secondary or parallel opposition of thought: in loco umidiore far potius serunt quam triticum; contra in aridiore hordeum potius quam far, Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; 1, 1, 47: si nihil esset quod inane vocaret, Omne foret solidum; nisi contra corpora certe Essent, etc., Omne quod est spatium vacuum constaret inane, Lucr. 1, 521; 4, 348; cf.: justa omnia decora sunt, injusta contra, ut turpia, sic indecora, Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94; id. N. D. 2, 15, 41; id. de Or. 3, 33, 136; id. Quint. 30, 93: id. Off. 3, 21, 84; id. Leg. 2, 1, 2: facilem esse remsi modo unum omnes sentiant; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere, Caes. B. G, 5, 31; Liv. 25, 30, 3; Sen. Ben. 1, 5, 2; Plin. 12, 19, 42, § 92; 11, 14, 14, § 35; Suet. Caes. 73; Gell. 1, 4, 5: si male rem gerere insani est, contra bene, sani, Hor. S. 2, 3, 74.
      2. 2. In opposition to a dependent clause: ut hi miseri, sic contra illi beati quos, etc., Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16; so id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; Quint. 9, 3, 39: cui ego rei tantum abest ut impedimento sim, ut contra te M. Manli adhorter, etc., Liv. 6, 15, 5; 6, 31, 4: cum virtus adeo neminem spe ac pollicitatione corrumpat, ut contra in se inpendere jubeat, ac, etc., Sen. Ben. 4, 1, 2: aut igitur negemus quidquam ratione confici, cum contra nihil sine ratione recte fieri possit, aut, etc., whereas on the contrary, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 38, 84; cf.: at contra, Lucr. 2, 392.
      3. 3. With co-ordinate conjunctions.
        1. a. Copulative, et contra or contraque (never with ac or atque); also nec contra (rare), and on the other hand.
          1. (α) With reference to a reason or conclusion, after nam, enim, cum, or itaque: nam et ratione utiomnique in re quid sit veri videre et tueri decet, contraque fallitam dedecet quam, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 27, 94: malus est enim custosmetus, contraque benevolentia fidelis, id. ib. 2, 7, 23: cum reficiat animos varietas ipsa, contraque sit aliquanto difficilius in labore uno perseverare, Quint. 1, 12, 4; 3, 8, 32; 8, 6, 20: itaque in probris maxime in promptu est, si quid tale dici potest, etc. Contraque in laudibus, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 18, 61; cf. Suet. Calig. 51; so with nec: nam nec comoedia cothurnis assurgit, nec contra tragoedia socculo ingreditur, Quint. 10, 2, 22.
          2. (β) With contrasted examples or illustrations, often after ut or sic: audivi ex majoribus natu, hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasicā, contraque patrem ejusnullam comitatem habuisse sermonis, Cic. Off. 1, 30, 109: ut suspitionibus credi oportere, et contra suspitionibus credi non oportere, id. Inv. 2, 15, 48; Quint. 8, 4, 1; 5, 10, 48; 9, 3, 7; 9, 4, 52; 11, 1, 14; Sen. Ep. 82, 14; Dig. 17, 1, 22, § 4.
          3. (γ) With contrasted actions, assumptions, etc.: atque utinam qui ubique sunt propugnatores hujus imperii possent in hanc civitatem venire, et contra oppugnatores rei publicae de civitate exterminari! Cic. Balb. 22, 51: domo pignori datā, et area ejus tenebituret contra jus soli sequitur aedificium, Dig. 13, 7, 21: equo et asinā genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos quos asini et equae generassent, Plin. 8, 44, 69, § 17: ceterum potest ex lege quidem esse judicium, sed legitimum non esse, et contra ex lege non esse, sed legitimum esse, Gai Inst. 4, 109; Plin. 2, 65, 65, § 161; 35, 15, 5, § 183.
          4. (δ) After a negative clause, affirming the opposite idea, et contra or contraque, but on the contrary: in quo (consulatu) ego imperavi nihil, et contra patribus conscriptis et bonis omnibus parui, Cic. Sull. 7, 21: nunc vero cum ne pulsus quidem ita sim ut superare non possim, contraque a populo Romano semper sim defensus, etc., id. Dom. 33, 88; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Marcell. 6, 20; so, et contra, Suet. Tit. 7.
        2. b. With adversative conjunctions, at contra, sed contra, contra autem, contra vero (not verum contra, nor contra tamen).
          1. (α) At contra (freq.), merely a strengthened contra (v. 1. supra): huc accedit uti mellis lactisque liquores Jucundo sensu linguae tractentur in ore; At contra taetri absinthi naturafoedo pertorqueat ora sapore, Lucr. 2, 400: cogunt, id. 2, 74; 1, 366; 2, 235 et saep.: nos qui domi sumus, tibi beati videmur; at contra nobis tu quidemprae nobis beatus, Cic. Fam. 4, 4, 2; id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. Rosc. Am. 45, 131; id. Verr. 2, 5, 26, § 66; Sall. J. 36, 2; 4, 7; 15, 3; id. C. 12, 5: ideo siccas aiunt Aethiopiae solitudinesAt contra constat Germaniam abundare rivis, Sen. Q. N. 3, 6, 2; 1, 3, 1; id. Ep. 100, 7; Plin. 7, 53, 54, § 186; Suet. Galb. 15; Tac. A. 4, 28.
          2. (β) Sed contra, after a negative sentence (class.): non quo acui ingenia adulescentium nollem, sed contra ingenia obtundi nolui, Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 93; id. Att. 9, 15, 3; id. Ac. 1, 10, 35; id. Fl. 11, 26: arma populi Romani non liberis servitutem, sed contra servientibus libertatem adferre, Liv. 45, 18, 1: tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito, Verg. A. 6, 95; Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 12.
            PostAug. also without a preceding negation: obiisse nostro Laium scelere autumant superi inferique: sed animus contra innocensnegat, Sen. Oedip. 765; Symm. Ep. 6, 81.
          3. (γ) Contra autem (rare; in Cic. only where different subjects have contrasted predicates in dependent clauses): quia pacis est insigne toga, contra autem arma tumultus atque belli, Cic. Pis. 30, 73.
            In later writers = contra alone: sub septemtrione aedificiaconversa ad calidas partes oportere fieri videntur. Contra autem sub impetu solis meridiani regionibus conversa ad septemtrionem … sunt facienda, Vitr. 6, 1, 2; Gell. 14, 2, 19; Dig. 7, 1, 25, § 3; 34, 3, 25.
          4. (δ) Contra vero (very rare; not in Cic.), used for contra: contra vero quercus infinitam habet aeternitatem, Vitr. 2, 9, 8; 6, 1, 3; Cels. 3, 6 fin.
            (ε) Atqui contra, App. Mag. p. 287, 24.
        3. c. With disjunctive conjunctions, aut contra, vel contra, seu contra, or on the contrary, or conversely (always without change of subject).
          1. (α) Aut contra: num aut scriptum neget, aut contra factum infitietur? Cic. Part. Or. 38, 133: quae (mens) aut languescitaut contra tumescit, etc., Quint. 1, 2, 18: si imbres defuere, aut contra abundavere, Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 228.
          2. (β) Vel contra: hinc enim quaestiones oriuntur: Injuriam fecisti, sed quia magistratus, majestatis actio est? Vel contra: Licuitquia magistratus? Quint. 5, 10, 40; 9, 4, 96; Suet. Galb. 3; Dig. 35, 2, 56, § 4; 8, 4, 6.
          3. (γ) Seu contra: seu tristis veniam, seu contra laetus amicis, Prop. 1, 11, 25.
        4. d. With causal conjunctions, nam contra (very rare; never contra enim): falso queritur de naturā suā genus humanum quod, etc. Nam contra, reputando, neque majus aliud, neque praestabilius invenies, Sall. J. 1, 1; Quint. 1, 1, 1; 9, 2, 23.
      4. 4. In late Lat., e contra (also one word, ēcontrā) = contra,
          1. (α) In the meaning, the contrary (D. 1.): aliis vero econtra videtur, Hier. Ep. 12.
          2. (β) Et econtra = et contra (E. 3. a.): honestiorum provectu et econtra suppliciis, Aur. Vict. Caes. 39, 45.
            For quod contra, v. II. E. 1. c.
      5. 5. With emphatic particles.
        1. a. Quin contra, nay on the contrary, opposing an affirmative sentence to a preceding negative statement (quin etiam amplifies without opposition; sed contra opposes without amplification; quin contra both opposes and amplifies); not before Livy: num qui enim socordius rempublicam administrari post Calvi tribunatumquam? etc. Quin contra patricios aliquot damnatosneminem plebeium, Liv. 6, 37, 8; 31, 31, 9; 35, 26, 10; 37, 15, 3.
        2. b. Immo contra (post-Aug.).
          1. (α) = no, on the contrary, refuting opinions, after questions and in the form of a dialogue: existimas nunc me detrahere tibi multas voluptates? … Immo contra, nolo tibi umquam deesse laetitiam, Sen. Ep. 23, 3; Dig. 33, 7, 5; 33, 7, 29.
          2. (β) = sed contra, but on the contrary: proinde ne submiseris te, immo contra fige stabilem gradum, Sen. Cons. Marc. 5, 6; id. Cons. Polyb. 15, 2; cf. prep.: immo contra ea, Liv. 41, 24, 8; cf. II. E. 1. b. infra.
        3. c. Item contra = an emphatic et contra (very rare): quoniambeate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis, item contra miseriam in dolore, etc., Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 86; cf. I. A. 3. γ supra.
  2. F. With a comparative clause introduced by ac, atque, or quam, representing a logical or moral opposition (contra atque debuit = non ita ut debuit; cf. Cic. Or. 3, 19, 70); cf. prep., II. C. 3. γ, and II. E. 2. infra.
      1. 1. Of logical opposition, contrary to, different from, otherwise than; in the best prose only with atque or ac.
          1. (α) With atque: item, contra atque apud nos, fieri ad Elephantinem ut neque ficus neque vites amittant folia, Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 6: simulacrum Jovis, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere, Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20; id. Sull. 24, 69: judicium suscepturos contra atque omnis Italia populusque Romanus judicavisset, Caes. B. C. 3, 12; id. B. G. 4, 13; Plin. 12, 19, 43, § 95.
          2. (β) With ac: itaque contra est ac dicitis, Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 41: vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse, id. Div. 2, 24, 53; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 6, § 11; id. Or. 40, 137: cum contra ac Deiotarus sensit victoria belli judicaret, id. Phil. 11, 13, 34: Petreius ubi videt, Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magnā vi tendere, etc., Sall. C. 60, 5.
          3. (γ) With ac and atque: si denique aliquid non contra ac liceret factum diceretur, sed contra atque oporteret, Cic. Balb. 3, 7.
          4. (δ) With quam (post-Aug.): cui contra quam proposuerat aliqua cesserunt, Sen. Ira, 3, 6, 5; Plin. 10, 53, 74, § 149; 11, 21, 24, § 72; Gell. 6 (7), 8, 6: contra quam licet, id. 1, 3, 19; Sil. 15, 107.
      2. 2. Of moral opposition of acts contrary to rules and principles (cf. II. 3. γ infra); so always with quam: mater Aviti, generi sui, contra quam fas erat, amore capta, contrary to the divine law, Cic. Clu. 5, 12: ut senatus, contra quam ipse censuisset, ad vestitum rediret, contrary to its own resolution, id. Pis. 8, 18: contra quam ista causa postulasset, id. Caecin. 24, 67: contra quam sanctum legibus est, Liv. 30, 19, 9; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 11; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 2; id. Dom. 46, 122: contraque faciunt quam polliceri videntur, Auct. Her. 4, 3, 6; Cic. de Or. 2, 20, 86.
  3. II. Prep. with acc., before, against, facing, towards, opposite to, contrary to (acc. to many scholars not ante-class.; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 108; but found Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 24 Fleck., a line omitted by Lorenz as a gloss; id. Pers. 1, 1, 13 Ritschl; Att. ap. Non. p. 469, 15, or Trag. Rel. v. 476 Rib.; cf. also Plaut. Poen. 5, 6, 18; Cato, R. R. 18, 1, and v. I. A. 1. a. β, and I. A. 1. b. α supra).
    1. A. Local uses.
      1. 1. Opposite, over against, facing.
        1. a. Of countries and places (mostly of those separated by water; adversus and e regione mostly of places opposite by land): insulae natura triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra Galliam, Caes. B. G. 5, 13; 3, 9; 4, 20: ad insulam quae est contra Massiliam, id. B. C. 1, 56; 3, 23: Rhodios, pacatis contra insulam suam terris, etc., Liv. 37, 15, 7; 3, 26, 8: Carthago Italiam contra, Verg. A. 1, 13; 5, 124; Ov. M. 14, 17: insulae quae contra Tauri promuntorium inopportune navigantibus objacent, Chelidoniae nominantur, Mel. 2, 7; Plin. 3, 26, 30, § 151; 6, 28, 32, § 152; 5, 7, 7, § 41; Tac. A. 3, 1; id. H. 2, 17.
        2. b. Of the heavenly bodies: donique (luna) eum (sc. solem) contra pleno bene lumine fulsit, Lucr. 5, 708: contra Volucris rostrum posita est Lyra, Vitr. 9, 4, 5; Sen. Q. N. 1, 5, 9; 1, 8, 3; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 5, 10, 10, § 56.
          So, tertium (latus Britanniae) est contra septem triones, opposite (facing); hence, contra meridiem and contra ortus (instead of ad or adversus meridiem, etc.), facing the south and east, Plin. 6, 24, 24, § 85; 17, 2, 2, § 22.
          So of a person standing in the sunlight: cum minima umbra (i. e. a sole) contra medium fiet hominem, Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 327; cf.: contra mediam faciem meridies erit, id. 18, 33, 76, § 326.
        3. c. Of opposite ends of a line.
          1. (α) Of the diameter of the earth: esse e regione nobis e contrariā parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quos ἀντίποδας vocatis, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123.
          2. (β) Of a line drawn: contra autem E littera I erit ubi secat circinationem linea, opposite the point E will be the letter I, Vitr. 9, 7, 4.
        4. d. Of buildings, etc.: contra hoc aviarium est aliud minus in quo quae mortuae sunt aves curator servare solet, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 5; Vitr. 5, 6, 3; 3, 5, 15: (statuam) quae fuerit contra Jovis Statoris aedem in vestibulo Superbi domus, Plin. 34, 6, 13, § 29: contra medium fere porticum diaeta paulum recedit, Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 20; 2, 17, 5; Suet. Aug. 44.
        5. e. Of places on the human body: id quod contra stomachum est, Cels. 4, 5 (4, 12 med.); 7, 7; 4, 20 (13).
          Of the direction of the intestines, etc.: eacontra medium alvum orsa, Cels. 4, 1 fin.
      2. 2. Of actions, opposite, towards, against, facing (syn.: adversus, ad, e regione, Caes. B. G. 7, 61).
        1. a. In gen.: quamvis subitoquamque Rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago, Lucr. 4, 156: Democritusclipeum constituit contra exortum Hyperionis, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4: et contra magnum potes hos (i.e. oculos) attollere solem, Nec tremis … ? Prop. 1, 15, 37; Col. 7, 3, 8: rex constiterat contra pedites, Curt. 10, 9, 13; 9, 5, 1: ne contra septentrionem paveris, Plin. 18, 33, 76, § 330; 28, 6, 19, § 69: contra solem varie refulgens, placed in the sun, id. 37, 10, 63, § 173; 10, 54, 75, § 151; 37, 6, 22, § 83; 37, 7, 25, § 95: cum terrestres volucres contra aquam clangores dabunt, id. 18, 35, 87, § 363; 19, 8, 39, § 131.
        2. b. Dependent on verbs of motion (very rare without the idea of hostility): (Dinocrates) incessit contra tribunal regis jus dicentis, towards, Vitr. 2, praef. 1.
          So trop., of actions done for a purpose: lege Corneliā de sicariis tenetur qui, cum in magistratu esset, eorum quid fecerit contra hominis necem quod legibus permissum non sit, Dig. 48, 8, 4.
        3. c. Appositively, with the predicate: (elephanti) tanta narratur clementia contra minus validos, ut, etc., if fronting weaker animals, if brought in contact with them (not to be connected with clementia), Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 23.
          Similarly: dumfidens non est contra feram, if fronting the animal (not dependent on fidens), Plin. 8, 16, 21, § 57.
        4. d. Against an opposing action, etc.: contra vim atque impetum fluminis conversa, Caes. B. G. 4, 17, 5: cum plateae contra directos ventos erunt conformatae, Vitr. 1, 6, 8: ut contra ventum gregem pascamus, Col. 7, 3, 12; Sen. Q. N. 2, 31, 2; Plin. 29, 3, 12, § 52; 17, 2, 2, § 21; 8, 16, 21, § 54: contra fluminum impetus aggeribus, id. 35, 14, 48, § 169: capite in sole contra pilum peruncto, id. 27, 4, 5, § 17; 18, 35, 88, § 364; Varr. ap. Plin. 7, 20, 19, § 83; Sil. 14, 352; Dig. 9, 2, 29, § 4.
          Trop.: contra fortunam tenendus est cursus, Sen. Prov. 5, 9.
          Prov.: contra stimulum calces, kick against the pricks, Isid. Orig. 1, 36, 28 (al. calcitres); cf. Amm. 18, 5, 1.
        5. e. Of local actions with hostile intent.
          1. (α) Lit.: quae vis Coclitem contra omnes hostium copias tenuit? Cic. Par. 1, 2, 12: Pompeium Cartejae receptum scribis: jam igitur contra hunc exercitum (sc. constitit), id. Att. 15, 20, 3: pertimescam, credo, ne mihi non liceat contra vos in contione consistere, to face you, id. Agr. 1, 8, 25; Lepidus ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 34, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 26: a fronte contra hostem pedum quindecim fossam fieri jussit, id. ib. 1, 41; 1, 42; id. B. G. 7, 62: Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos: Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium collocat, Liv. 1, 27, 5; 24, 41, 5; 38, 4, 5; Verg. A. 12, 279; Front. Strat. 2, 2, 13; 2, 3, 17.
            Appositively, with a local verb understood: terribilis haec contra fugientes belua est, fugax contra insequentes, i. e. if fronting, if placed opposite, Plin. 8, 25, 38, § 92.
          2. (β) Trop.: castra sunt in Italiā contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata, Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5; id. Mil. 1, 2; Quint. 7, 7, 5: tum contra hanc Romam illa altera Roma quaeretur, will be as a rival against this Rome, Cic. Agr. 2, 22, 86: cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare, etc., Caes. B. G. 1, 40: (Cicero) plerumque contra inimicos atque obtrectatores plus vindicat sibi, when fronting adversaries, Quint. 11, 1, 23.
        6. f. In partic.
          1. (α) Stare contra aliquem (opp. stare ab aliquo); usu. implying hostility; mostly trop., to stand against, to be arrayed against, to face, oppose: quod contra hoc exemplum nulla staret eorum ratio, Auct. Her. 4, 5, 7: contra populi studium, Cic. Brut. 34, 126: contra civium perditorumdementiam a senatu et a bonorum causā, id. ib. 79, 273; so, a mendacio contra veritatem, id. Inv. 1, 3, 4: contra cives in acie, id. Att. 16, 11, 2: et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci, opposite, Verg. A. 5, 477; 5, 414: haec enim (ratio) solastat contra fortunam, Sen. Ep. 14, 4, 2: contra leonem etiam stetit, fronted, i. e. hunted, Spart. Carac. 5 fin.
          2. (β) Contra aliquem ire: aut saevos Libyae contra ire leones, Stat. Th. 9, 16.
            Trop.: uti contra injurias armati eatis, Sall. J. 31, 6: interritus (sapiens) et contra illa (mala) ibit et inter illa, Sen. Ep. 59, 8; cf.: contra venire, II. B. 1. c. β infra, and v. also II. B. 2. b. and II. B. 1. b. infra.
      3. 3. Transf.,
        1. a. To persons placed together for comparison: C. vero Caesar, si foro tantum vacasset, non alius ex nostris contra Ciceronem nominaretur, Quint. 10, 1, 114: CORONATO CONTRA OMNES SCAENICOS, Inscr. Grut. p. 331, n. 4.
        2. b. To things compared, as if weighed against each other as to their value, strength, etc.
          1. (α) Lit. (very rare): quamcunque vis rem expende, et contra aquam statueSi gravior est, leviorem remferet, etc., Sen. Q. N. 3, 25, 5.
          2. (β) Prop.: cujus (i. e. generis humani) causā videtur cuncta alia genuisse natura, magnā saevā mercede contra tanta sua munera, Plin. 7, 1, 1, § 1: qui amicus esse coepit quia expedit, placebit ei aliquod pretium contra amicitiam, Sen. Ep. 9, 9: numquam ulli fortiores cives fuerunt quam qui ausi sunt eum contra tantas opes ejuscondemnare, Cic. Fam. 7, 2, 3: tantum studium bonorum in me exstitisse, contra incredibilem contentionem clarissimi et potentissimi viri, id. ib. 7, 2, 2; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9, 3: nomen prorogans nostrum et memoriam extendens contra brevitatem aevi, as a compensation for, Plin. 2, 63, 63, § 154.
            So esp., valere contra, to weigh against, counterbalance, avail or prevail against: non vereor ne meae vitae modestia parum valitura sit contra falsos rumores, Matius ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 28, 8: (illa facta) pro periculo potius quam contra salutem valere debere, Cic. Part. Or. 35, 120; id. Off. 3, 29, 104: contrane lucrum nil valere Pauperis ingenium? Hor. Epod. 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 1; id. Cons. Helv. 5, 5; so, robur habere contra: si contra unamquamlibet partem fortunae satis tibi roboris est, id. ib. 13, 2; so of counterchecks: in Cretā decem qui cosmoe vocantur, ut contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis, sic illi contra vim regiam constituti, Cic. Rep. 2, 33, 58.
            Of antidotes: cimicum natura contra serpentium morsus valere dicitur, item contra venena omnia, Plin. 29, 4, 17, § 61.
            Hence,
        3. c. Colloq., aliquid contra aurum est, something is worth gold, is superb, both predicatively and attributively (cf.: auro contra, I. A. 2. supra): hujusce pomaria in summā Sacrā Viā ubi poma veneunt, contra aurum imago, a spectacle for gold, i. e. a magnificent sight, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 10 MSS. (al. aliter): numcubi hic vides citrumnum quod emblema aut lithostratum? quae illic omnia contra aurum, superb, id. ib. 3, 2, 4 MSS. (Schneid. omits aurum, ex conj.): oneravi vinum, et tunc erat contra aurum, Petr. 7, 6.
        4. d. Transf., of replies, with aiebat, inquit, etc.; both in friendly and inimical sense; esp., contra ea, contra haec, = the adv. contra: contra ea Titurius sero facturos clamitabat, etc., Caes. B. G. 5, 29: contra ea Verginius unum Ap. Claudium et legum expertem et, etc., aiebat, Liv. 3, 57, 1; 24, 45, 4: quae contra breviter fata est vates, Verg. A. 6, 398: contra quod disertus Tu impie fecisti inquit, etc., Quint. 7, 1, 53 (cf.: contra ea, II. E. 1. infra).
    2. B. Denoting hostility or disadvantage.
      1. 1. With verbs of hostile action.
        1. a. Of physical exertion: pugnavere et tertio consulatu ejus viginti (elephanti) contra pedites quingentos, Plin. 8, 7, 7, § 22: proelium Afri contra Aegyptios primi fecere fustibus, id. 7, 56, 57, § 200; 8, 40, 61, § 142.
        2. b. Referring to warfare (usu. adversus), bellum gerere (rarely for cum or adversus; but contra patriam, contra aras, etc., not cum patriā, etc.; cf. bellum, II. A. 1. e.): a quo prohibitos esse vos contra Caesarem gerere bellum (opp. pro), Cic. Lig. 8, 25; id. Phil. 5, 10, 27; Liv. Ep. 129.
          With bellum suscipere: contra Antonium, Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 5; so, contra patriam, id. Sull. 20, 58: pugnare contra patriam, id. ib. 25, 70: contra conjuges et liberos, Sen. Ben. 5, 15, 5: armatum esse contra populum Romanum, Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32.
          With arma ferre (freq.), Cic. Phil. 2, 29, 72; 13, 21, 47; Liv. 28, 28, 15; Nep. Att. 4, 2; Tib. 1, 6, 30; Ov. M. 4, 609; 13, 269; id. P. 1, 1, 26.
          With arma sumere or capere, Cic. Rab. Perd. 6, 19; id. Phil. 4, 1, 2; 4, 3, 7: armis contendere contra, Caes. B. G. 2, 13: arma alicui dare (trop.), Cic. Phil. 2, 21, 53: aciem instruere (trop.), Liv. 25, 4, 4: exercitum comparare, Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 14; 4, 1, 2: exercitum instruere, id. Cat. 2, 11, 24: exercitum ducere and adducere, id. Phil. 4, 2, 5; 3, 4, 11: exercitum contra Philippum mittere, id. Inv. 1, 12, 17: naves ducere contra, Hor. Epod. 4, 19: ducere contra hostes, Liv. 1, 27, 4: florem Italiae educere contra, Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 24: proficisci contra, to march against, Liv. 1, 11, 3; 8, 2, 5: auxilium ferre Rutulis contra Latinos, Plin. 14, 12, 14, § 88: juvare aliquem contra, Caes. B. C. 1, 35: consilium inire contra Sequanos, to take hostile measures against, id. B. G. 6, 12.
        3. c. Of legal contention (more freq. adversus, except with verbs of saying).
          1. (α) In gen., with agere or causam agere, to act as counsel against a party or his attorney: cum agerem contra hominem disertissimum nostrae civitatis, Cic. Caecin. 33, 97; id. Brut. 63, 226; Sen. Ben. 4, 15, 3; Quint. 11, 1, 59.
            Causam recipere or suscipere contra, to accept a retainer against: (causam) quam receperam contra pueros Octavios, Cic. Att. 13, 49, 1; Quint. 6, 1, 12; Plin. Ep. 4, 17, 1.
            Adesse alicui contra, to appear, act as one’s counsel against: rogavit me Caecilius ut adessem contra Satrium, Cic. Att. 1, 1, 3; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 5 al.; cf.: esse contra, id. ib. 1, 18, 3.
            Trop.: conquesturus venit; at contra se adfuit et satisfacienti satisfecit, Sen. Fragm. Amic. 14, 1, 89: causam defendere contra, against the accuser, Cic. de Or. 1, 39, 178: statuere contra aliquem (sc. causam), to establish a case against an adversary, id. Or. 10, 34: actio competit contra, Dig. 49, 14, 41: querelam instituere contra, ib. 5, 2, 21, § 1: bonorum possessionem petere contra, ib. 5, 2, 23: jus obtinere contra, Cic. Quint. 9, 34: pugnare contra, to struggle against the accuser, id. Sull. 17, 49; id. Verr. 1, 11, 33: id quod mihi contra illos datum est, i. e. a local advantage over, id. Tull. 14, 33: judicare contra aliquem, id. Fl. 20, 48; Dig. 21, 2, 55; 5, 2, 14; Just. Inst. 4, 17, 2: pronuntiare contra, Paul. Sent. 5, 34, 2: dare sententiam contra, Dig. 21, 2, 56, § 1: decernere contra, Cic. Fl. 31, 76: appellare contra aliquem, Dig. 49, 1, 3; 49, 5, 6; cf.: contra sententiam, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 32, § 2.
            Sentire contra aliquem, to have an opinion unfavorable to: cur vos (cum) aliquid contra me sentire dicatis, etc., Cic. Caecin. 27, 79.
          2. (β) Venire contra aliquem, to appear as counsel for one’s adversary: quid tu, Saturi, qui contra hunc venis, existimas aliter? Cic. Rosc. Com. 6, 18; id. Mur. 4, 9; id. Phil. 8, 6, 18.
            Venire contra rem alicujus, to give advice damaging one’s interests: contra rem suam me venisse questus est, Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 3.
          3. (γ) With dicere and other verbs of saying. (αα) Of a lawyer pleading against a lawyer: ipse ille Mucius, quid in illā causā cum contra te diceret, attulit quod? etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 244: cum ille contra me pro Sex. Naevio diceret, id. Brut. 60, 2, 7; id. de Or. 2, 7, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 45; id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 44; id. Planc. 2, 5; id. Brut. 26, 102; so, causam dicere, id. Or. 2, 23, 98: causam perorare, id. Quint. 24, 77.
            (ββ) Of a lawyer’s pleading against the parties: dic mihi, M. Pinari, num si contra te dixero mihi male dicturus es? Servil. ap. Cic. de Or. 2, 65, 261; 3, 34, 138; 1, 14, 60; id. Or. 35, 123; Quint. 11, 1, 57; cf. with ellipsis of acc.: quorum alter pro Aufldiā, contra dixit alter, id. 10, 1, 22.
            (γγ) Of a party against a lawyer: si Gaditani contra me dicerent, if the Gaditani were my adversaries, Cic. Balb. 17, 38.
            (δδ) Of witnesses and experts, and the pleadings against them: si decressent legationem quae contra istum diceret, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 4, § 12: contra testes dicere (opp. a testibus or pro testibus). Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118 (cf.: testimonium in aliquem dicere, id. Sull. 17, 48; Quint. 7, 4, 36): contra juris consultos dicere, against their legal opinions, Cic. Caecin. 24, 69.
            So of witnesses in scientific questions: contra testes dicendum est, Sen. Q. N. 7, 16, 1.
            (εε) Dicere or contendere aliquid contra aliquem, to maintain a point against: cum interrogamus adversariosquid contra nos dici possit, Auct. Her. 4, 23, 33: tamenne vereris ut possis hoc contra Hortensium contendere? Cic. Quint. 25, 78.
        4. d. Of literary adversaries, mostly with verbs of saying and writing: cum scriberem contra Epicurios, Cic. Att. 13, 38, 1: contra Epicurum satis superque dictum est, id. N. D. 2, 1, 2: contra Brutum, id. Tusc. 5, 8, 21: contra Academiam, id. Ac. 2, 19, 63; id. Fin. 1, 1, 2; 5, 8, 22; id. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; 5, 30, 84; id. Ac. 2, 4, 17: contra autem omnia disputatur a nostris, id. Off. 2, 2, 8.
        5. e. Of public and political adversaries (syn. adversus and in).
          1. (α) In gen.: sentire contra, Cic. Mil. 2, 5: pugnare contra bonos, id. Sull. 25, 71: contra eos summā ope nitebatur nobilitas, Sall. C. 38, 2; Cic. Sest. 19, 42; 52, 112: (tribuni) qui aut contra consulem, aut pro studio ejus pugnabant, Liv. 39, 32, 12.
          2. (β) Of political speaking: cum (Cato) eo ipso anno contra Serv. Galbam ad populum summā contentione dixisset, Cic. Brut. 20, 80; so id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 53; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 1.
        6. f. Of hostile or criminal acts in gen. (syn.: adversus, in): inire consilia contra, Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 110; id. Cat. 1, 7, 18: manum comparare contra aliquem, id. Sull. 24, 68: conjurationem facere, id. ib. 4, 12: congredi, id. Lig. 3, 9; Sall. J. 64, 4: aliquid contra imperatorem moliri, Just. Inst. 4, 18, 3: nec dolor armasset contra sua viscera matrem, against her own offspring Ov. R. Am. 59.
          Facere contra (more freq. with abstr. objects; cf. II. C. 1. f. β infra): nunc te contra Caesarem facere summae stultitiae est, to take parts against, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 16, 2: eae (res) contra nos ambae faciunt, operate against us, id. Quint. 1, 1.
          With verbs of saying, etc.: homo disertus non intellegit, eum quem contra dicit laudari a se? Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18; 2, 1, 2; 2, 21, 51; Sen. Ep. 15, 3, 70: epigramma quod contra quamdam Gelliam scripsit, Lampr. Alex. Sev. 38: disputare contra deos, in two signif.: contra deum licet disputare liberius, to accuse, reproach a god, Cic. N. D. 3, 31, 76; but: mala et impia consuetudo est contra deos disputandi, to reason against the gods, i. e. against their existence, id. ib. 2, 67, 168.
      2. 2. Predicatively, with esse (videri, etc.), against, injurious to, unfavorable, prejudicial, to one’s disadvantage: ut ex senatusconsulto neque cujus intersit, neque contra quem sit intellegi possit, Cic. Mur. 32, 68; id. de Or. 3, 20, 75; 2, 74, 299; 2, 81, 330; id. Sull. 13, 39; Sen. Ben. 6, 31, 6: licentiam malis dare certe contra bonos est, injurious to, Quint. 4, 2, 75: res contra nos est, of unfavorable chances in a lawsuit, id. 4, 66, 1; 4, 2, 75; 5, 13, 32.
        Often, contra aliquem = quod est contra aliquem, referring to indef. pronouns or adjectives: nihil contra me fecit odio mei = nihil quod esset contra me, Cic. Har. Resp. 3, 5; id. Off. 3, 31, 112: quibus (temporibus) aliquid contra Caesarem Pompeio suaserim, id. Phil. 2, 10, 24.
      3. 3. Added adverb. to the predicate, mostly referring to purpose, with hostile intent, for the purpose of some hostile act, in order to oppose, in opposition: Caesarine eam (provinciam) tradituri fuistis, an contra Caesarem retenturi? or keep it against Cæsar, Cic. Lig. 7, 23: sero enim resistimus ei quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos, id. Att. 7, 5, 5: judicium illud pecuniā esse temptatum non pro Cluentio, sed contra Cluentium, id. Clu. 4, 9; id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 52; id. Ac. 2, 28, 92: cum quae facitis ejusmodi sint ut ea contra vosmet ipsos facere videamini, id. Rosc. Am. 36, 104; Sen. Ep. 3, 7, 3: Curio se contra eum totum parat, i. e. to speak against him, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 10; Caes. B. C. 1, 85 ter; Sen. Q. N. 1, 7, 1; Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192; Plin. Pan. 41.
        So with the force of a temporal clause: fidem meam quam essent contra Massam Baebium experti, in the suit against, Plin. Ep. 3, 4, 4.
      4. 4. Dependent on adjectives (rare): contra se ipse misericors, to his own injury, Phaedr. 4, 18, 3: severissimus judex contra fures, Lampr. Alex. Sev. 28.
      5. 5. With nouns.
        1. a. Acc. to 1. b.: ut quam maximae contra Hannibalem copiae sint, Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17; cf. Vell. 2, 76, 3.
        2. b. Acc. to 1. c. and 1. e.; so esp., oratio contra (cf.: oratio in).
          1. (α) Oratio contra (never in), of an address against the counsel of a party or against the prosecutor: quid in omni oratione Crassus vel apud centumviros contra Scaevolam, vel contra accusatorem Brutum, cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret? Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; cf.: Cato pro se contra Cassium = in oratione contra, Gell. 10, 15, 3; so, haec perpetua defensio contra Scaevolam, Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 221: orationem illam egregiam quam (Aeschines) in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat, id. ib. 3, 56, 213.
          2. (β) Of an address against the party, either in judicial or political affairs: unam orationem contra Gracchum reliquit, Cic. Brut. 26, 99: (Demosthenis) oratio contra Leptinem … contra Aeschinem falsae legationis, id. Or. 31, 111; Gell. 10, 24, 10; 10, 18, 91; Cic. Brut. 46, 169; Quint. 12, 10, 61; Cic. de Or. 2, 11, 45; id. Brut. 44, 164; Gell. 13, 25 (24), 15; cf. Quint. 4, 3, 13; 11, 2, 25.
        3. c. Acc. to 1. f.: contra patres concitatio et seditio, Cic. Brut. 14, 56.
          Of animals: contra volpium genus communibus inimicitiis, Plin. 10, 76, 96, § 207.
    3. C. With inanimate and abstract objects.
      1. 1. Directly dependent on verbs (cf. B. 1.).
        1. a. Of physical or moral exertion: cum fulmina contra Tot paribus streperet clipeis, Verg. A. 10, 567: pugnandum tamquam contra morbum, sic contra senectutem, Cic. Sen. 11, 35: contra verum niti, Sall. J. 35, 8: contra fortunam luctari, Sen. Ben. 7, 15, 2; id. Brev. Vit. 10, 1; id. Ep. 78, 15; 99, 32; cf. Cic. Off. 1, 31, 110.
        2. b. Of warfare (lit. and trop.): bellum contra aras, focos, vitam fortunasque gerere, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1: bellum gerimuscontra arma verbis, id. Fam. 12, 22, 1.
          So of logical contradictions: artificis autem est invenire in actione adversarii quae semet ipsa pugnent, Quint. 5, 13, 30.
        3. c. Of legal contention.
          1. (α) Of the actions of the counsel or prosecutor: dicere, or perorare, agere contra aliquid, to plead against, contest something: contra argumenta, rumores, tabulas, quaestiones (opp. ab argumentis, etc.), Auct. Her. 2, 6, 9 sqq.; Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 118: contra ratiocinationem, id. Inv. 2, 50, 153: contra scriptum dicere, to contest, controvert a written law or a document, id. ib. 2, 47, 138; 2, 48, 143; id. Brut. 39, 145; Quint. 7, 7, 1: contra caput dicere, to plead against life, Cic. Quint. 13, 44 (cf.: servum in caput domini interrogare, Paul. Sent. 1, 1, 34; 5, 16, 5 and 8; 5, 46, 3): contra libertatem agere, Dig. 40, 12, 26.
            Pregn.: contra rerum naturam, contraque consuetudinem hominum dicere (opp. contra nos dicere), Cic. Rosc. Am. 15, 45.
          2. (β) Of judicial decisions contradicting documents, etc.: contra tabulas judicare, Cic. de Or. 2, 70, 281: contra testamentum, Dig. 2, 17, § 1: contra sententiam dicere, ib. 49, 8, 1, § 2.
          3. (γ) Admittere aliquem contra bona, to admit a petition for bonorum possessio (cf.: inmittere in bona), Dig. 38, 2, 3, § 6.
        4. d. Of antagonism in literary and ethical questions.
          1. (α) To contend that something is false: dicere, disputare, disserere contra opinionem or sententiam, Cic. Tusc. 1, 4, 8; 5, 19, 55; id. de Or. 3, 18, 67; id. Fin. 5, 4, 10; id. Ac. 2, 18, 60; Sen. Ira, 1, 3, 3; id. Ep. 87, 5; 102, 5 (cf.: in sententiam dicere, in support of an opinion, Caes. B. G. 1, 45): contra sensus dicere, Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101: contra rhetoricen dicere, Quint. 2, 17, 40.
          2. (β) Of criticism, hostility to principles, etc.: contra Iliadem et Odysseam scribere, Vitr. 7, praef. 8: contra quorum disciplinam ingenium ejus exarserat, Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83.
          3. (γ) Ethically: contra voluptatem dicere, that pleasure is a moral evil, Cic. Fin. 5, 8, 21: contra mortem loqui, that death is no evil, Sen. Ep. 82, 7; in both senses: contra vitia, pericula, fortunam, ambitionem, id. ib. 100, 10: contra fortunam gloriari, that fortune has no power over him, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; Sen. Ep. 26, 5.
        5. e. Of public and political acts and speeches: contra potentiam accusatorum dicere, Cic. Brut. 44, 164: contra legem dicere or verba facere, id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 53; Liv. 34, 8, 1: rogationem ferre contra coloniam ( = contra legem de coloniā deducendā), Cic. Clu. 51, 140; Auct. Her. 1, 17, 21; Plin. 8, 17, 24, § 64.
        6. f. Of hostility, injury, wrongs, etc.
          1. (α) In gen.: senatusconsulto quod contra dignitatem tuam fieret, directed against, Cic. Fam. 12, 29, 2: contra rem publicam se commovere, id. Cat. 1, 26; 1, 3, 7: incitari, id. Sest. 47, 100: consilia inire, id. Agr. 2, 3, 8: conjurationem facere, Sall. C. 30, 6: contra salutem urbis incitari, Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 20: cogitare aliquid contra salutem, id. ib. 3, 9, 21: contra voluntatem or studium dicere, to oppose one’s will in a speech: esse aliquem in civitate qui contra ejus (Chrysogoni) voluntatem dicere auderet, id. Rosc. Am. 22, 60; id. Phil. 1, 11, 28; id. de Or. 3, 34, 138; id. Mur. 4, 10; Tac. H. 2, 91: ne quid contra aequitatem contendas, ne quid pro injuriā, do not array yourself against equity, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71.
            Trop.: quis non contra Marii arma, contra Suliae proscriptionem irascitur? ( = Mario propter arma, Sullae propter proscriptionem), Sen. Ira, 2, 2, 3.
          2. (β) In partic.: facere contra aliquid (syn. adversus), to commit an offence against, to transgress, etc.: si quis ad Antonium profectus essetsenatus existimaturum eum contra rem publicam fecisse, Cic. Phil. 8, 11, 33; id. Mil. 5, 13; 6, 14; id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 3, 25, 95; S. C. ap. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 6; Liv. 25, 4, 7; so, contra salutem rei publicae facere, Cic. Dom. 38, 102: contra majestatem, against the emperor, Dig. 48, 4, 5: contra leges, Cic. Dom. 18, 48; id. Vatin. 7, 18; id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Mur. 32, 67; id. de Or. 3, 19, 70; cf. id. Clu. 34, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; id. Dom. 14, 38; id. Phil. 10, 6, 13; Gai Inst. 4, 121: contra edictum (praetoris), Cic. Verr 2, 3, 10, § 25; Dig. 39, 1, 20, § 1: contra foedus, Cic. Balb. 6, 16: contra jusjurandum ac fidem, id. Off. 3, 10, 43; id. Lael. 3, 30, 74; id. Verr. 2, 3, 3, § 7; Prop. 3, 30, 44 (2, 32, 44).
            And ironically: tune contra Caesaris nutum (sc. facies)? Cic. Att. 14, 10, 1.
            Rarely contra ea facere = contra facere, adverb. (cf. I. B. 8. and II. E. 1. b.): corpus in civitatem inferri non licetet qui contra ea fecerit, extra ordinem punitur, Paul. Sent. 1, 21, 2; 1, 21, 12.
      2. 2. Predicatively with esse (usu. impers.), in violation of, in conflict with, contrary to (cf. 3. γ).
          1. (α) With esse expressed as the predicate: hominem hominis incommodo suum augere commodum magis est contra naturam quam mors, Cic. Off. 3, 5, 21; id. Fin. 3, 9, 31; id. N. D. 3, 13, 33; Sen. Ep. 5, 4; Plin. 7, 8, 6, § 45: contra leges or legem est, Cic. Pis. 13, 30; id. Mur. 32, 67: contra officium est, id. Off. 3, 10, 43; 1, 10, 32; 1, 6, 19; cf. id. Lael. 11, 39; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Liv. 6, 40, 5; Sen. Q. N. 2, 37, 2; Gai Inst. 3, 157; Dig. 30, 1, 112, § 3; 16, 3, 1, § 7.
            With ellipsis of object (naturam), Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 89; cf.: adeo res ista non habet ullam moram quae contra causas ignium sit, unfavorable to the formation of fire, Sen. Q. N. 2, 26, 7.
          2. (β) With verbal predicate, referring to an indef. pron. or adj., with esse understood: scis huncnihil umquam contra rem tuam cogitasse ( = nihil quod contra rem tuam esset), Cic. Rosc. Am. 50, 147; id. Mil. 5, 13: aliquid contra animum audiendi, something against our liking, Sen. Const. 19, 2.
            So mostly with facere: si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque fecerint, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148; id. Att. 3, 23, 2; 2, 22, 2; id. Off. 3, 15, 63; Sall. C. 15, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 11; 8, 2, 17; 35, 1, 79, § 2.
          3. (γ) Contra officium, substantively, = id quod contra officium est: Sic inter recte factum atque peccatum, officium et contra officium, media locabat quaedam, Cic. Ac. 1, 10, 37.
      3. 3. Adverbially with the predicate.
          1. (α) In order to oppose, in opposition to, with hostile intent (cf. B. 3.): eidem illam proscriptionem capitis mei contra salutem rei publicae rogatam esse dicebant, that the proposal of the law was an attack on the republic, Cic. Prov. Cons. 19, 45; id. Rab. Perd. 12, 35; id. Phil. 10, 10, 22: imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit, to reply to the demands, Sall. J. 83, 3; 25, 6; so, advocare contra, Sen. Cons. Polyb. 12, 4; id. Ep. 15, 2, 52: si contra mortem te praeparaveris, to meet death, id. ib. 11, 3, 8.
          2. (β) With the force of a clause of manner, injuriously to, etc.: quibus contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est, Cic. Mur. 23, 47; Suet. Aug. 78: contra hominis salutem, with danger to a man’s life, Cod. Just. 7, 62, 29.
          3. (γ) In gen., of conflict with some rule or principle, contrary to, in violation of, without regard to ( = ita ut contra sit; cf. 2. supra; very freq. from the class. period; syn. adversus): ceperitne pecunias contra leges P. Decius, Cic. de Or. 2, 31, 136; id. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10; id. Fl. 34, 86: pecuniam contra leges auferre, id. Verr. 1, 18, 56; 2, 1, 10, § 27; 2, 5, 18, § 46; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56: contra legem, id. Rab. Perd. 3, 8; id. Dom. 16, 41: contra jus fasque, id. Har. Resp. 16, 34; id. Quint. 6, 28: contra jus, Liv. 5, 4, 14; id. Dom. 13, 55; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, § 34: contra jus gentium, Liv. 4, 32, 5; 9, 10, 10; 21, 25, 7; 5, 36, 6; 6, 1, 6: contra juris rigorem, Dig. 40, 5, 24, § 10 et saep.: contra testimonium aliquid judicare, without regard to, Cic. Brut. 31, 117: aliquid contra verecundiam disputare, contrary to the rules of decency, id. Off. 1, 35, 128: aliquid contra fidem constituere, Quint. 5, 13, 34: quae majores nostri contra lubidinem animi sui recte atque ordine fecere, contrary to the dictates of passion, Sall. C. 51, 4; id. J. 33, 1; cf. of logical opposition, II. E. 2. infra.
      4. 4. Dependent on substt.
        1. a. Of physical strife: scit ille imparem sibi luctatum contra nexus (draconis), Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 33.
        2. b. Of warfare: imperatorum copia contra tuum furorem, Cic. Mur. 39, 83: Parthorum gloria contra nomen Romanum, Liv. 9, 18, 6: in castris perditorum contra patriam, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 23, 6.
        3. c. Of legal contention: causa contra scriptum, Cic. Inv. 2, 46, 135.
        4. d. Of political speaking: divina M. Tullii eloquentia contra leges agrarias, Quint. 2, 16, 7; 9, 3, 50; Gell. 18, 7, 7.
        5. e. Of literary opposition: Caesaris vituperatio contra laudationem meam, Cic. Att. 12, 40, 1.
        6. f. Of hostility, etc.: cujus factum, inceptum, conatumve contra patriam, Cic. Cat. 2, 12, 27: ullum factum dictumve nostrum contra utilitatem vestram, Liv. 6, 40, 5.
        7. g. Of injury: vitae cupiditas contra rem publicam, Cic. Planc. 37, 90: contra serpentes venenum, fatal to serpents, or as a defence against serpents, Plin. 7, 2, 2, § 15.
        8. h. Of violation, disregard, etc. (cf. 3. γ): iter contra senatus auctoritatem, Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 48: contra consuetudinem somnium, Plin. 10, 77, 98, § 211: bonorum possessio contra tabulas, Dig. 37, 4, 3, § 13; Gai Inst. 3, 41.
      5. 5. Dependent on adjectives (very rare; cf. II. D. 2. c. infra): contraque patris impii regnum impotens, avum resolvam, Sen. Herc. Fur. 966.
    4. D. Of defence, protection, and resistance (syn.: adversus, ab).
      1. 1. Against persons.
        1. a. Dependent on verbs: cum populus Romanus suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes qui dissentiunt possit defendere, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 63: si ego consul rem publicam contra te et gregales tuos defendissem, id. Sest. 52, 111; 22, 49; 8, 20; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45: contra quem multum omnes boni providerunt, provided a great defence, id. Mur. 38, 81: formula quā utitur patronus contra libertum qui eum in jus vocat, as a defence against, Gai Inst. 4, 46.
          And of protection of plants against injurious animals: contra haec animalia proderit, si, etc., Pall. 10, 3, 2.
        2. b. Dependent on adjectives, mostly participial: paratus contra, Cic. Mil. 21, 56: nihil satis firmum contra Metellum, Sall. J. 80, 1: contra potentes nemo est munitus satis, Phaedr. 2, 6, 1.
      2. 2. Against inanimate and abstract things.
        1. a. Dependent on verbs: contra avium morsus munitur vallo aristarum, Cic. Sen. 15, 51: propugnaculum, quo contra omnes meos impetus usurum se putat, id. Verr. 2, 3, 16, § 40; 2, 5, 39, § 102: publicam causam contra vim armatam suscipere, id. Dom. 34, 91; id. Quint. 30, 94; id. Leg. 3, 3, 9: contra tantas difficultates providere, Sall. J. 90, 1; 76, 4; so, contra ea, id. ib. 57, 5: patricii vi contra vim resistunt, Liv. 3, 13, 4; Plin. 14, 2, 4, § 28; Tac. Agr. 45; Sen. Prov. 4, 12; id. Const. 5, 4.
        2. b. Dependent on substt.: suffragia contra oppugnationem vestrae majestatis, Cic. Rab. Perd. 12, 35: defensio contra vim, id. Mil. 5, 14: patronus justitiae fuit contra orationem Phili, id. Lael. 7, 25; Plin. 29, 2, 9, § 30; 14, 3, 4, § 40: contra labores patientia, id. 23, 1, 22, § 37.
        3. c. Dependent on adjectives (in Cic. freq. with P. a. predicatively used; otherwise very rare; in later prose freq.): nec est quidquam Ciliciā contra Syriam munitius, against an attack from the side of Syria, Cic. Fam. 14, 4, 4: ut nullius res tuta, nullius domus clausa, nullius vita saepta, nullius pudicitia munita contra tuam cupiditatem posset esse, id. Verr. 2, 5, 15, § 39; id. Fin. 1, 16, 51; id. Mil. 25, 67; id. Tusc. 5, 8, 19; 5, 27, 76: vir contra audaciam firmissimus, id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; Sall. J. 33, 2; 28, 5: fortis contra dolorem, Sen. Ep. 98, 18; Quint. 12, 1, 10: callosus, Plin. 11, 37, 54, § 147; 14, 2, 4, § 23: far contra hiemes firmissimum, id. 18, 8, 19, § 83: equus tenax contra vincula, Ov. Am. 3, 4, 13: contraque minantia fata pervigil, Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 1, 284.
      3. 3. Of remedies against sickness and its causes, poison, etc.; so only in Plin.; in Pall. only of preventives and of protection against hurtful animals, and against mental perturbations in gen.; cf. infra (syn. ad in Cat., Cic., Cels., Col.; adversus only in Celsus, who also has in with abl.).
          1. (α) Dependent on verbs: cujus et vinum et uva contra serpentium ictus medetur, Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 117; 7, 2, 2, § 13: prodest et contra suspiria et tussim, id. 20, 13, 50, § 128: valet potum contra venena, id. 28, 7, 21, § 74; 29, 4, 22, § 71; 29, 4, 26, § 81; 28, 8, 27, § 98; 16, 37, 71, § 180; 35, 6, 14, § 34; 28, 6, 18, §§ 65-67.
          2. (β) Dependent on substt.: remedium contra morsus, Plin. 8, 32, 50, § 118; 10, 59, 79, § 163: contra venena esse omnia remedio, id. 16, 44, 95, § 251; 17, 24, 37, § 240; 7, 1, 1, § 4.
          3. (γ) Dependent on adjectives: vinum quod salutare contra pestilentiam sit, Pall. 11, 14, 17.
          4. (δ) Appositively, as a remedy: cujus lacteum succum miris laudibus celebratcontra serpentes et venena, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 16; 29, 4, 26, § 83.
            So of remedies against affections: Tiberium tonante caelo coronari (lauro) solitum ferunt contra fulminum metus, Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 135; cf. Sen. Ira, 2, 21, 1; id. Tranq. 5. 1.
    5. E. Of logical opposition.
      1. 1. With a neuter demonstrative (contra ea, contra haec, contra quae, quod contra = contra, adv.).
        1. a. The contrary, the reverse (very rare; cf. I. D. 1.): sed mihi contra ea videtur, but to me the contrary seems true, Sall. J. 85, 1: omnia quae contra haec sunt, omnia quae contra sunt, and vice versa, Quint. 5, 10, 90.
        2. b. Contra ea, on the contrary, in logical antithesis (not in Cic. and Sall.; once in Caes. and Quint.; several times in Liv. and Nep.; cf.: contra ea, in other uses, II. A. 2. e. α, II. D. 2. a., II. A. 3. d., II. C. 1. f.): omnes arderent cupiditate pugnandicontra ea Caesarspatiumque interponendumputabat ( = at contra), but Cæsar on the contrary, Caes. B. C. 3, 74: superbe ab Samnitibuslegati prohibiti commercio sunt; contra ea benigne ab Siculorum tyrannis adjuti, Liv. 4, 52, 6; 2, 60, 1; 21, 20, 6; 44, 43, 5: pater … Thracem me genuit, contra ea mater Atheniensem, Nep. Iphicr. 3, 4; id. praef. 6; id. Alcib. 8, 1.
          And after a question, with immo (cf. I. E. 5. b.): an infirmissimi omnium … (sumus)? Immo contra ea vel viribus nostris, vel, etc., tuti (sumus), Liv. 41, 24, 8.
        3. c. Quod contra, by anastrophe (v. F. 1.), contrary to which, whereas, while on the contrary (only once in Lucr. and three times in Cic.): illud in his rebus vereor ne forte rearis, Inpia te rationis inire elementa viamque indugredi sceleris: quod contra saepius illa Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta, whereas on the contrary, Lucr. 1, 81: cujus a me corpus crematum est, quod contra decuit ab illo meum (sc. cremari), Cic. Sen. 23, 84: quod contra oportebat delicto dolere, correctione gaudere, id. Lael. 24, 90 (B. and K. place a comma after oportebat; cf. Nauck ad loc.): reliquum est ut eum nemo judicio defenderit: quod contra copiosissime defensum esse contendi, id. Quint. 28, 87 (many consider contra in all these passages as an adverb; cf. Hand, Turs. II. p. 121 sq.; some explain quod as an ancient ablative, = quā re; v. Ritschl, Plaut. Exc. p. 57, Munro ad Lucr. 1, 82).
      2. 2. With an abstract noun, with the force of the adverb contra with ac or atque (I. F. 1.), contrary to, contrary to what, etc. (esp. in Sall., not in Cic.; cf. praeter): celeriter contraque omnium opinionem confecto itinere, contrary to the opinion ( = contra ac rati erant), Caes. B. G. 6, 30: contra opinionem Jugurthae ad Thalam perveniunt, Sall. J. 75, 9; Hirt. B. G. 8, 40.
        Contra spem either contrary to the opinion, or against the hope: Metellus contra spem suam laetissume excipitur ( = contra ac ratus, veritus est), Sall. J. 88, 1; so, cetera contra spem salva invenit, Liv. 9, 23, 17: contra spem omnium L. Furium optavit, id. 6, 25, 5; Curt. 8, 4, 45; but: at Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto ( = contra ac speraverat), Sall. J. 28, 1; Liv. 24, 45, 3: postquamJugurtha contra timorem animi praemia sceleris adeptum sese videt, Sall. J. 20, 1: ipse in Numidiam procedit, ubi contra belli faciem tuguria plena hominumqueerant ( = contra ac in bello evenire solet), id. ib. 46, 5: contra famam, Plin. 13, 22, 43, § 126; 7, 53, 54, § 180: segniterque et contra industriam absconditae formicae, slowly, and in a manner different from their usual activity, id. 18, 35, 88, § 364.
        Of persons: frigidam potionem esse debere, contra priores auctores, Asclepiades confirmavit, contrary to the opinion of the former physicians, Cels. 4, 26 (19).
  4. F. Sometimes by anastrophe after its noun.
      1. 1. In prose, after relatives, esp. in Cic.: quos contra disputant, Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 47: quem contra dicit, id. Phil. 2, 8, 18 (v. II. B. 1. f.): quem contra veneris, id. Mur. 4, 9: quas contra, praeter te, etc., id. Vatin. 7, 18: eos ipsos quos contra statuas, id. Or. 10, 34: quos contra me senatus armavit, id. Att. 10, 8, 8: quam contra multa locutus est, Sen. Ep. 82, 7, Plin. Ep. 1, 23, 3; Claud. in Rufin. 1, 332; v. also E. 1. c. supra.
      2. 2. After other words (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): hunc igitur contra mittam contendere causam, Lucr. 4, 471: dicere eos contra, id. 4, 484: donique eum contra, id. 5, 708: agmina contra, Verg. A. 12, 279: magnum Alciden contra, id. ib. 5, 414: Paridem contra, id. ib. 5, 370: Italiam contra, id. ib. 1, 13: deos contra, Ov. P. 1, 1, 26: Messania moenia contra, id. M. 14, 17: litora Calabriae contra, Tac. A. 3, 1.

Drĕpăna, ōrum, n., = Δρέπανα, a town on the western coast of Sicily, now Trapani, Cato acc. to Serv. Verg. A. 3, 707, Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 90; Liv. 28, 41; Flor. 2, 2, 12.
Called also Drĕpănum, Verg. A. 3, 707, and Drĕpăne (es), f., Sil. 14, 269. The promontory in its neighborhood is called Promontorium Drepanum, Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 88.
Drĕpănĭtānus, a, um, of Drepanum: pupilus, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 57, § 140.
Plur. as subst.: Drĕpănĭtāni, the inhabitants of the promontory of Drepanum, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 17; Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 91.

1. E, e, indecl. n. or (sc. littera)

  1. I. fem., a vowel corresponding to both the ε and the η of the Greeks, Ter. Maur. p. 2386 P.; Aus. Idyll. de Litter. Monos. 3 and 4; Mart. Cap. 3, § 235. Its sound varied; short e being sounded sometimes like Engl. e in men (so in pater, inter, etc.), sometimes more nearly like short i, as in Engl. pin (so in famelia, mereto, Menerva, etc.); whence, in the literary language, it passed, in a large class of words, into ĭ (familia, merito, etc.), though retained in the popular speech, and oft. in inscriptions. Long e also varied in sound, often resembling the diphthong ae, with which it is constantly confounded in MSS. and inscrr. (cf. raeda and reda; saeculum and seculum; ceteri and caeteri, etc.), and often approaching the sound of ī (v. Corss. Ausspr. 1, 324 sqq.). The short e in Latin is the least emphatic of all the vowels; hence, it not only took the place of other vowels in changes of words where the sounds became weakened, and in the vulgar language where the vowel sounds were less sharply distinguished, but frequently took the place of a final syllable ending in a consonant, and was sometimes, especially at the end of words, rejected.
        1. b. The transition of ă into ĕ (which took place especially before two consonants, whereas usually ă passed into ĭ in open syllables, v. art. A.) is seen in the compounds refello, commendo, ineptus, confercio, incestus, perpetior, etc. In some words the orthography is unsettled, as in the compounds of spargo, which are written sometimes aspergo, conspergo, dispergo, etc., and sometimes aspargo, conspargo, dispargo, etc.; as along with dispando the vulgar form dispenno also occurs. So in all the verbal reduplications, as cĕcidi, cĕcini, pĕperi, pĕpigi, tĕtigi; pĕperci, fĕfelli; dĕdi and stĕti (from cado, cano, pario, pango, tango, parco, fallo, DA and STA), whereas the vowels i, o, u remain unchanged in reduplication (bĭbi; mŏmordi; tŭtudi; for the anomalous forms in Gell. 7, 9, are certainly Graecized). As along with pĕpĭgi there also arose by syncope (in the Lat. lang. a predominating element in the formation of words) the perfect pēgi; so we may explain the perfect forms cēpi, fēci, jēci, frēgi, and ēgi, as syncopated from cĕcĭpi, fĕfĭci, jĕjĭci, frĕfĭgi, and ĕïgi (this last analogously with dēgo, from dēĭgo).
        2. c. For i stands ĕ
          1. (α) in the neuter forms of the adjectives in is (acre, agreste, facile, etc.).
          2. (β) In the nominative forms: aedes, apes, canes, etc. (for aedis, apis, canis, etc. v. h. vv.).
          3. (γ) In the dative forms: morte, jure dicundo, Dijove, Victore, etc. (cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 192 sq.; and Quint. 1, 4, 17).
          4. (δ) In the nominatives in es, whose genitive has ĭtis.
            (ε) In the nominatives from stems ending in c, b, p, t, n, etc., as, pollex, caelebs, princeps, comes, flumen, from pollic-, caelib-, princip-, comit-, flumin-; and (ζ) In the old and partly vulgar manner of writing and pronouncing: CEPET, EXEMET, NAVEBOS (Colum. Rostr.), FVET, DEDET, TEMPESTATEBVS, TIBE (Epit. of the Scipios), COMPROMESISE (S. C. de Bacch.), MENERVA, MAGESTER, HERE, VEA, VELLA, etc. (Quint. 1, 4, 8, and 17; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 14; cf. Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 46). In the earliest period (before Plautus) ĕ was found in many words in which ĭ afterwards took its place; as: semul, fuet, mereto, tempestatebus, etc.
            (η) It is prob. too that the abl. ĕ of the third declension proceeded from ī (or id); cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 239 sqq.; Corss. Ausspr. 2, 241 sq.
        3. d. It less freq. happens that o and u pass over into ĕ, as vello, ocellus, verto, vertex, vester, compared with vulsi, oculus, vorto, vortex, voster: generis from genus, societas from socius, etc.; and even for long u we have ĕ in dejĕro and pejĕro, from jūro.
        4. e. The stem vowel o is weakened to ĕ in the vocative of nouns in us of the second declension; ĕ also represents o in the perf. and in pass. forms, such as scripsere, conabare, conabere, from scripserunt, conabaris, conaberis; in the future forms attinge, dice, facie, recipie, from attingam, dicam, faciam, recipiam (see under dico init.); in the forms mage, pote, from magis, potis, etc.; it is inserted for euphony in the nom. of many nouns and adjj whose stems end in r preceded by a mute, as ager, aper, liber, aeger, ruber, sacer, etc.
        5. f. The vowel e is suppressed in the imperatives dic, duc, fac, fer, in the anteclass infinitive biber (from bibere); in the vocative of the second declension of nouns in ius, as Gai, geni, fili, canteri, columbari, mantuari, volturi, mi (cf. Freund in Jahn’s Neue Jahrbüch, 1835, vol. 13, p. 148 sq.), in enclitic particles often, as: hic, haec, hoc, for hice, etc.; so, illaec, sic, nunc, nec, ac, etc.: viden, potin: quin, for quine, etc., and as an initial in the present forms of the verb esse (sum, sumus, sunt; sim, etc., for esum, esumus, esunt, esim, etc.). But the forms facul, simul, Bacchanal, etc., are not apocopated. Even a radical ĕ sometimes drops out when a prefix or suffix is taken; so, gigno, for gigeno: malignus, for maligenus: gnatus, for genatus.
        6. g. The long e interchanges most freq. with the diphthongs ae and oe (q. v.); yet it sometimes also took the place of ā, as in anhēlo, from hālo, and in the rustic bēlo, for bālo; and likewise of ī, as LEBER, SPECA, AMECVS, for līber, spīca, amīcus (Quint. Inst. l. l.; Varr. R. R. 1, 48, 2; Paul. ex Fest. p. 15, 6 Müll.); and in words borrowed from the Greek, as chorēa, Darēus, along with Academīa, Alexandrīa; see the letter I.
        7. h. As an abbreviation, E (mostly in connection with other abbreviations) signifies egregius, equus, eques, erexit, evocatus, etc.; e. g. E. M. V. = egregiae memoriae vir; E. Q. R. = eques Romanus; EE. QQ. RR. = equites Romani; E. P. = equo publico; E. M. D. S. P. E. = e monitu de sua pecunia erexit, etc.
  2. 2.
    1. e. praep., out of, from, v. ex.

eā, v. is.

eādem, adv. [abl. f., from idem, sc. viā, operā, or parte].

  1. I. By the same way (rare): ut ventum est in trivium, eadem qua ceteri fugere noluit, Cic. Div. 1, 54, 123: eadem revertens, Liv. 5, 46, 3: eadem et Romanos sequentes impetus rapit, id. 4, 33, 12.
  2. II. Transf.
    1. A. (Sc. operā, sometimes expressed, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 90; id. Bacch. 1, 1, 26; prop., by the same piece of work, i. e.) At the same time, likewise (ante-class.), Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 180 (cf. Brix. ad loc.) eādem ego ex hoc quae volo exquaesivero, id. Capt. 2, 2, 43. atque eādem mulieres apparebunt, id. Poen. 3, 3, 3.
    2. B. Repeated: eademeadem, now … now, at one timeat another: eadem biberis, eadem dedero tibi ubi biberis savium, Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 49 (15).

ĕălē, ēs, f., a large animal found in Ethiopia; acc. to Cuvier, the two-horned rhinoceros, Plin 8, 21, 30, § 73.

ĕā-propter (= propter ea), adv., on that account, therefore, Ter. And. 5, 5, 3 Fleck. Pomp. Bon. Com. p. 238 Rib.

ĕapse, v. ipse init.

    1. 1.ĕărĭnus, a, um, adj., = ἐαρινός, of the color of spring, i. e. green: oves purpureas et earinas, Tert. Hab. mul. 8.

2. Eărĭnus (-nos), i, = Ἑαρινός, the name of a slave, cited as an example of poet. license, and scanned Ēăr-, Mart. 9, 2, 13.

ĕā-tĕnus, adv. [is], designates the limit to which an action or condition extends,

  1. I. so far (rare; perh. not before Cic., for in Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 50, the right reading is protenus); followed by quatenus, Cels. 2, 10; Dig. 47, 2, 92: caules lactucae ab imo depurgatos eatenus, qua tenera folia videbuntur, etc., Col. 12, 9, 1; followed by qua, id. 4, 7, 2; id. Arb. 8, 2; Quint. 1, 11, 1.
    With quoad: hoc civile, quod vocant, eatenus exercuerunt, quoad populum praestare voluerunt, Cic. Leg. 1, 4, 14; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 3; id. Univ. 11.
    With ut, to such a degree, to that extent: verba persequens eatenus, ut ea non abhorreant a more nostro, Cic. Opt. Gen. 7 fin.; Cels. 5, 26; Col. 5, 1, 3.
    Cf. with ne, Cels. 6, 6; Suet. Tib. 33; Just. 5, 10.
  2. II. Of time, so long, hitherto (late Lat.), Capitol. Gordian. 22; Oros. 6, 1.

ĕbĕnĕus (hĕb-), a, um, adj. [hebenus, q. v.], of ebony, ebon (ante-class.), Mart. Capt. 1, § 80.

ĕbĕnĭnus, v. hebeninus.

ĕbĕnus, v. hebenus.

ē-bĭbo, bi, bĭtum, 3, v. a., to drink up, drain (not in Cic. or Caes.).

  1. I. Lit.: quid comedent? quid ebibent? Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 14; so with comedere, Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 20; id. Ps. 5, 2, 11; hirneam vini, id. Am. 1, 1, 276: poculum, id. Curc. 2, 3, 80: ubera lactantia, Ov. M. 6, 342 et saep.: elephantos dracones, i. e. to suck their blood, Plin. 8, 12, 12, § 34; cf. sanguinem, Plaut. Curc. 1, 2, 65: cum vino simitu imperium, to drink up, forget through drinking, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 84 (cf. in the simplex: bibere mandata, id. Pers. 2, 1, 3, v. bibo).
    Poet.: invenies illic, qui Nestoris ebibat annos, to drink the age of Nestor (i. e. to drink as many glasses as equal the years of Nestor), Ov. F. 3, 533.
    1. B. Transf., of inanimate things, to suck in, draw in, absorb: (fretum) peregrinos amnes, Ov. M. 8, 837; cf. Plin. 5, 15, 15, § 71: saniem (lana), id. 9, 38, 62.
  2. II. In gen., to waste in drink, squander, Hor. S. 2, 3, 122.
  3. III. Trop., to exhaust, remove, take away: spiritum meum, Vulg. Job, 6, 4.

ĕbiscum, i, n., = hibiscum, q. v. Scribon. 80 and 82.

(ēbīto, ĕre, false reading in Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 28, for bitat, v. Ritschl ad h. l.)

ē-blandĭor, ītus, 4,

  1. I. v. dep. a., to obtain by flattery or coaxing (rare but class.): enitere, elabora vel potius eblandire, effice, ut, etc., Cic. Att. 16, 16 C, § 12; cf. Plin. 9, 8, 8, § 28; Liv. 27, 31: unum consulatus diem, Tac. H. 3, 37: solitudinem ruris, Col. 8, 11, 1.
  2. II. Of inanimate subjects, to foster, mature by mildness: caelo fecunditatem omnem eblandito, Plin. 16, 27, 51, § 118; cf. Vitr. 7, 5, 5; and somewhat diferently: ut eblandiatur lac igneam saevitiam, i. e. mitigate and drive it out, Col. 7, 5, 16.
    Note: Part., eblandītus, a, um, pass., obtained or caught by flattery: eblandita suffragia, Cic. Planc. 4, 10; cf. preces, Plin. Pan. 70 fin.: aures nostrae, Gell. 11, 13, 5.

Ebŏra, ae, f.

  1. I. A castle in Spain, perh. the present Ixar, Mel. 3, 1, 8; Cic. Att. 16, 4, 2: ex conjec. Turneb. (Bait. Baream).
  2. II. A municipium in Lusitania, also called Libertas Julia, now Ebora, Mel. 3, 1, 4; Plin. 4, 22, 35, § 117.

Eborācum, i, n., the capital of the Brigantes in Britain, now York, Eutr. 8, 19; Inscr. Orell. 190 al.

ĕbŏrārĭus (ebŭr-), ii, m. [ebur], a worker in ivory, Cod. Just. 10, 64, 1; Inscr. Orell, 4180; 4302.

ĕbŏrĕus, a, am, adj. [ebur], made of ivory, ivory: Juppiter, Plin. 36, 5, 4, § 40: mensae, Dig. 33, 7, 12, § 43: oppida, Quint. 6, 3, 61 Spald.

* ēbrĭācus, a, um, adj. [ebrius; cf. merācus, from merus], drunken: homo, Laber. ap. Non. 108, 7 (Rib. Com. v. 10) dub.

* ēbrĭāmen, ĭnis, n. [ebrio], intoxicating liquor, strong drink, Tert. de Jejun. 9.

ēbrĭĕtas, ātis, f. [ebrius],

  1. I. drunkenness, ebriety (cf.: ebriositas, crapula), * Cic. Tusc. 4, 12; Sen. Ep. 83, 16 sq.; Quint. 1, 11, 2: Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 142: in proelia trudit inermem, * Hor. Ep. 1, 5, 16; Ov. A. A. 1, 597: tumultuosa, Vulg. Prov. 20, 1 al.
    Plur., carouses, Sen. Ep. 24, 16; Col. 1 praef. § 16.
  2. II. Transf., of things: nimio liquore abundat rumpitque se pomi ipsius ebrietas, i. e. excess of juice, Plin. 13, 4, 9, § 45.

ēbrĭo, āre, 1, v. a. [ebrius], to make drunk, to intoxicate (late Lat.).

  1. I. Lit.: mulieres, Macr. S. 7, 6, § 16.
  2. II. Trop.: animas, Macr. Somn. Scip. 1, 12, 10.

* ēbrĭŏlātus, a, um, adj. [ebriolus], a little intoxicated, rather tipsy, Laber. ap. Non. 108, 6.

ēbrĭŏlus, a, um, adj. dim. [ebrius], a little intoxicated, rather tipsy, perh. only in Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 15; 1, 3, 36.

* ēbrĭōsĭtas, ātis, f. [ebriosus], addiction to drink, sottishness, Cic. Tusc. 4, 12, 27.

ēbrĭōsus, a, um, adj. [ebrius], given to drinking, addicted to drunkenness.

  1. I. Prop.: hunc scribunt ebriosum esse, Cic. Fat. 5, 10: plurimum interesse inter ebrium et ebriosum, Sen. Ep. 83, 11.
    As subst.: ēbrĭōsus, i, m., a drunkard, sot: exempla ebriosorum, Cic. Ac. 2, 17, 53; Plin. 30, 15, 51, § 145 al.
    Comp., Cat. 27, 4.
  2. II. Transf.: acina, i. e. full of juice, juicy, Cat. 27, 4.

ēbrĭus, a, um, adj. [etym. dub.; perh. root φρήν; cf. sobrius], who has drunk enough, had his fill, corresp. with satur.

  1. I. Prop. (very rare): cum tu satura atque ebria eris, puer ut satur sit facito, Ter. Hec. 5, 2, 3 Ruhnk.; cf. saturitate, Plaut. Capt. 1, 1, 35.
    Far more freq. and class.,
    1. B. full of drink, drunk, intoxicated (cf. also: potus, ebriosus, temulentus, vinolentus): homo hic ebrius estTu istic, ubi bibisti? Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 25; 1, 1, 116; id. Aul. 4, 10, 19, sq. al.; Cic. Mil. 24, 65; id. Phil. 2, 41, 105; id. Div. 2, 58, 120; Sen. Ep. 83, 18 (thrice); Quint. 11, 3, 57; Prop. 4 (5), 5, 46; Hor. S. 1, 4, 51; Ov. M. 4, 26; id. F. 2, 582.
      As subst.: ebrĭus, ii, m., a drunkard, Vulg. Psa. 106, 27; id. Job, 12, 25 al. et saep.
        1. b. Poet., of inanimate things: vestigia, Prop. 1, 3, 9; cf. signa, id. 3, 3, 48 (4, 2, 48 M.): verba, Tib. 3, 6, 36: nox, Mart. 10, 47; cf. bruma, id. 13, 1 et saep.
  2. II. Trop., intoxicated, drunk, sated, filled: ebrius jam sanguine civium et tanto magis eum sitiens, Plin. 14, 22, 28, § 148: regina fortuna dulci ebria, intoxicated with good fortune, Hor. C. 1, 37, 12: dulcis pueri ebrios ocellos, i. e. intoxicated with love, Cat. 45, 11: ebria de sanguine sanctorum, Vulg. Apoc. 17, 6.
  3. III. In gen., abundantly filled, full (poet.): cena, Plaut. Cas. 3, 6, 18: lana de sanguine conchae, Mart. 14, 154; cf. id. 13, 82: lucerna, id. 10, 38.

Ebromagus, i, f., a city in the province of Gaul, now Bram, Cic. Font. 5, 9 Halm (Kayser, Cobiamachus, § 19).

ĕbŭlīnus, a, um, adj. [ebulum], of elder-wood, Plin. Val. 1, 64.

ē-bullĭo, īre, 4 (and post-class. ēbullo, āre, 1), v. n. and a.

  1. I. Neutr., to boil up, bubble up (post-class.).
    1. A. Lit.: fontium venae ebullant, Tert. de Pall. 2.
    2. B. Trop., to come forth bubbling, to appear boisterously: dum risus ebullit App. M. 2, p. 128.
      Poet.: o si Ebullit patrui praeclarum funus! i. e. utinam patruus moriatur, Pers. 2, 10 Dübner: priusquam hujus monstri idoli artifices ebullissent, Tert. Idol. 3: de Perside, to hurry confusedly away, Vulg. 2 Mac. 1, 12.
  2. II. Act. (class., but rare).
    1. A. Lit.: animam, i. e. to breathe out, give up the ghost, Sen. Apoc. 4, 2; Petr. 42, 3; 62, 10.
    2. B. To produce in abundance: et ebulliet fluvius ranas, Vulg. Exod. 8, 3; cf.: os fatuorum ebullit stultitiam, id. Prov. 15, 2.
      Trop.: virtutes, i. e. to boast of, Cic. Tusc. 3, 18, 42 Kühn; cf. id. Fin. 5, 27, 80 (and the Gr. παφλάζειν).

ēbullītĭo, ōnis, f. [ebullio], a bubbling up or out: scintillantis olei, Mythogr. Lat. 1, 231 fin.
Plur.,
Serv. Verg. G. 1, 110.

ĕbŭlum, i, n., and ĕbŭlus, i, m., Dane-wort, dwarf-elder: Sambucus ebulus, Linn.; Cato R. R. 37, 2; Plin. 26, 11, 73, § 119 sq.; Verg. E. 10, 27; Col. poët. 10, 10 al.

ĕbur, ŏris (cf. Quint. 1, 6, 22 sq.), n. [Copt. ebu; cf. Sanscr. ibhas, elephant; whence Gr. ἐλέφας, Semit. article el being prefixed], ivory.

  1. I. Prop., Cic. Leg. 2, 18; id. Brut. 73 fin.; id. Par. 1, 3; Quint. 2, 21, 9; Verg. G. 1, 57; id. A. 10, 137; 12, 68; Hor. C. 1, 31, 6; id. Ep. 2, 1, 96 et saep.
    Prov.: ebur atramento candefacere, v. atramentum.
  2. II. Meton.
    1. A. Things made of ivory. So of statues, Verg. G. 1, 480; Ov. M. 15, 792; of the tibia, Verg. G. 2, 193; of a scabbard, Ov. M. 4, 148; of the sella curulis, Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 54; Ov. F. 5, 51; id. Pont. 4, 5, 18.
    2. * B. An elephant, Juv. 12, 112.

ĕbŭrārĭus, v. eborarius.

ĕbŭrātus, a, um, adj. [ebur], adorned or inlaid with ivory: lecti, Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 53: vehicula, id. Aul. 2, 1, 46: sella, Lampr. Heliog. 4 fin.

Eburīni, ōrum, m., a people of Lucania, Plin. 3, 11, 15, § 98.
Hence, Eburī-nus, a, um, adj.: juga, Sall. H. 3, 67 Dietsch; p. 222 ed. Gerl. min.

* ĕburnĕŏlus, a, um, adj. dim. [eburneus], of ivory: fistula, Cic. de Or. 3, 60, 225 (for which, in Gell. 1, 11, 16, eburnea).

ĕburnĕus, and (mostly poet.) ĕbur-nus, a, um, adj. [ebur], of ivory.

        1. (α) eburneus: signum, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 1; Ov. M. 4, 354: lectus, Suet. Caes. 84: praesepe, id. Calig. 55: quadrigae, id. Ner. 22: tabulae, id. ib. 31 al.; so, tulit eburneos dentes mille, etc., ivory tusks, i. e. elephants’ tusks, Liv. 37, 59, 3.
        2. (β) ebur-nus: humerus, Verg. G. 3, 7: pecten, id. A. 6, 647: vagina, id. ib. 9, 305: porta, id. ib. 6, 699; Hor. C. 3, 27, 41: lyra, id. ib. 2, 11, 22: lecti, id. S. 2, 6, 103: currus, Ov. H. 15, 91: valvae, id. M. 4, 185: sceptrum, id. ib. 1, 178; 7, 103 al.: ensis, i. e. with an ivory hilt, Verg. A. 11, 11.
  1. B. Poet. transf., white as ivory.
        1. (α) eburne-us: eburnea brachia, Ov. Am. 3, 7, 7; cf. so, cervix, id. H. 20, 59: colla, id. M. 3, 422; 4, 335: terga, id. ib. 10, 592.
        2. (β) ebur-nus: digiti, Prop. 2, 1, 9.

Ebŭrŏbrittĭum (-britĭum), i, n., a town of Lusitania, Plin. 4, 21, 35, § 113.

Eburōnes, um, m., a nation of Gallia Belgica, extending from Liege to Aix-laChapelle, Caes. B. G. 2, 4; 4, 6; 5, 24 sq.; 6, 31 sq.; Oros. 6, 7.

Ebūrŏvīces, v. Aulerci.

Ebŭsus or Ebŭsos, i, f., an island of the Mediterranean, on the coast of Spain, now Iviza or Yvica, Liv. 22, 20, 7; Sil. 3, 363; Mela, 2, 7, 21; Plin. 3, 5, 11, § 28; 15, 19, 21, § 82; Manil. 4, 368.
Scanned Ebūsus, Avien. Perieg. 621.
Also called Ebōsīa, ae, f., Stat. S. 1, 6, 15.
Hence, Ebusitā-nus, a, um, adj., of Ebusus, Plin. 3, 5, 11, § 76: humus, Mela, 2, 7, 22.

ēcastor, v 2. Castor.

ēcaudis, e, adj. [e-cauda], without a tail, only trop.: versus = μείουροι or σκάζοντες, Diom. p. 499 P.

ecbăsis, is, f., = ἔκβασις, pure Lat. digressio, a digression, Serv. Verg. G. 1, 209

Ecbătăna, ōrum, n., = τὰ Ἐκβάτανα (Ecbătăna, ae. f., Lucil. ap. Non. 533, 30; Ecbătănae, ārum, f., App. de Mundo, p. 69, 18), the principal city of Media, now Hamadan, Curt. 4, 5, 8; 5, 8, 1; Plin. 6, 13, 16, § 42; Tac. A. 15, 31 al.

ecbŏlas, ădis, f., = ἐκβολάς, a sort of Egyptian grape (so called from its promoting abortion), Plin. 14, 18, 22, § 118.

ecca, eccam, v. ecce, II. D.

ecce, adv. demonstr. [perh. from locat. form of pronom. stem i, with demonstr. ending -ce; hence, in comedy often scanned ĕce, Corss. Aussp. 2, 636, 1026 sq.
Ribbeck explains ecce as indef. form ec, as in ecquis, ecquando, etc., strengthened by demonstr. ce, Lat. Part. p. 42 sq.; and Curt. refers it to root oc- of oculus; cf. eccere, Gr. Etym. p. 457], points out an object with emphasis, lo! see! behold! (constr. class. with nom. or clause, and ante-class. also with acc.).

  1. I. In gen.: quem quaero, optime ecce obviam mihi est, behold! there comes he I was wishing for, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 16: ecce autem video rure redeuntem senem, Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 45: ecce Dionaei processit Caesaris astrum, Verg. E. 9, 47: ecce trahebatur passis Priameïa virgo Crinibus, id. A. 2, 403; cf. id. ib. 6, 337; Ov. M. 2, 441 al.; sometimes in the middle of a clause: audiat haec tantumvel qui venit ecce Palaemon, Verg. E. 3, 50; Ov. M. 2, 93: apparet adhuc vetus cicatrix, id. ib. 12, 444; Calp. Ec. 1, 4 al.
  2. II. In partic.
    1. A. To denote that something is present (cf. Fr. voici), here (in this sense mostly ellipt.): circus noster ecce adest, Plaut Fragm. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 153 Müll.; so with adest, Ov. M. 2, 496; 3, 101: quid me quaeris? … ecce me, here I am, Plaut. Epid. 5, 2, 15; so, ecce me, id. Curc. 1, 3, 6; id. Mil. 3, 1, 69; Ter. Ad. 5, 9, 38: ecce nos, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 17: ecce odium meum, id. Poen. 1, 2, 139: ecce Gripi scelera, id. Rud. 4, 4, 134: ecce tuae litterae de Varrone, Cic. Att. 13, 16: ecce hominem te, Stasime, nihili, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 6; and simply ecce, here I am, id. As. 1, 1, 96.
    2. B. In enumerations, or after other objects mentioned, to introduce a new one with emphasis (Ciceronian): consecuti sunt hos Critias, Theramenes, Lysias, etc. … ecce tibi exortus est Isocrates, Cic de Or. 2, 22 fin.; id. Or. 16 fin.; id. de Or. 3, 3, 31; so ellipt., id. Div. 2, 70, 144; id. Ac. 2, 43, 134; id. Pis. 21.
    3. C. To introduce something unexpected or strange; hence, sometimes connected with subito, repente, de improviso, etc.: ecce Apollo mihi ex oraculo imperat, Ut, etc., Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 87; Cic. Sest. 41, 89; id. de Or. 2, 22, 94: et ecce de improviso ad nos accedit cana veritas, Varr. ap. Non. 243, 1; cf. Sall. J. 14, 11: discubitum noctu ut imus, ecce ad me advenit mulier, Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 99; so with a preceding cum, Cic. Caecin. 7, 20; with dum: haec dum agit, ecce, etc., Hor. S. 1, 9, 60; with ubi, Verg. A. 3, 219.
      Ellipt.: ecce postridie Cassio litterae Capua a Lucretio, Cic. Att. 7, 24; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 6; id. Ac. 2, 38; with subito, id. Att. 8, 8; 10, 3; cf.: ecce autem repente, id. Verr. 2, 5, 34; and with a preceding cum, id. Att. 2, 8; Liv. 2, 36 fin.
      For the expression ecce autem, v. autem.
    4. D. In conversat. lang., combined with the pronouns is, ille, and iste, into one word standing for either the simple ecce, or the pronoun itself, but with demonstrative force, in the foll. forms: nom., ecca, Plaut. Men. 1, 2, 66; id. Rud. 4, 4, 130; Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 34: eccilla, Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 30: eccillud, id. Rud. 2, 7, 18: acc. sing., eccum, Plaut. Am. prol. 120; 1, 2, 35; 3, 4, 22 et saep.; Ter. And. 3, 2, 52; 3, 3, 48 et saep.; Titin. ap. Charis. p. 177 P.: eccam, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 146; id. As. 1, 2, 25; id. Cas. 2, 1, 15 et saep.; Ter. Eun. 4, 5, 12; id. Hec. 4, 1, 8: eccillum, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 98; id. Pers. 2, 2, 65; id. Trin. 3, 1, 21; and syncopated ellum, Ter. And. 5, 2, 14; id. Ad. 2, 3, 7; Plaut. Curc. 2, 2, 28: eccillam, and sync. ellam, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 35; Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 51; id. Mil. 3, 1, 194; eccistam, Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 17: plur., eccos, id. Bacch. 3, 2, 19; id. Most. 1, 3, 154; id. Mil. 4, 7, 27; 5, 35; id. Rud. 2, 2, 4; Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 15; Afran. ap. Charis. p. 95 P.: eccas, id. Rud. 3, 2, 49: ecca, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 110.
      On the construction of eccum, etc., cf. Brix ad Plaut. Capt. 1002, p. 72; and on ecce see Hand, Turs. II. pp. 343-351.

eccentros, i, adj., = ἔκκεντρος, out of the centre, eccentric: terra, Mart. Cap. 8, § 849 al.

eccĕre or ĕcĕre, interj. [ecce and abl. of res, see there in fact! lo in truth! Corss. Aussp. 2, 858, 1028; cf. Ribbeck, Partik., p. 43 sq.; not from Ceres, but cf. Ussing ad Plaut. Am. 550], an exclamation of surprise, like Engl. there! (emphatic, only in the foll. passages): Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 4; id. Casin. 2, 6, 34; id. Men. 2, 3, 50; id. Trin. 2, 2, 105; id. Pers. 2, 4, 29; Ter. Ph. 2, 2, 5 (but in Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 52: ecce autem, Fleck. Lorenz).

eccheuma, ătis, n., = ἔκχευμα, a pouring out, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 88.

eccillam, eccillum, eccistam, v. ecce, II. D.

ecclēsĭa (ēcclĕsĭa, Sedul. 5, 358; Venant. Carm. 3, 6, 24; and ĕclĕsĭa, Paul. Nol. Carm. 15, 117; 28, 32), ae, f., = ἐκκλησία, an assembly of the (Greek) people.

  1. I. Prop.: et ecclesia consentiente, senate and people, in the free cities of Greece: bule et ecclesia, Plin. et Traj. Ep. 111, 1.
  2. II. Transf.
    1. A. In eccl. Lat.
      1. 1. A religious assembly of Christians, a Christian congregation, a church (eccl. Lat.; very freq.): die ecclesiae, etc., Vulg. Matt. 18, 17; id. Philem. 2; Aug. Ep. 190, 5, 19.
      2. 2. The Church, the whole body of believers: Christus dilexit ecclesiam, Vulg. Eph. 5, 25: Dei, id. Phil. 3, 6; Aug. Serm. 137, 6; so, in coelo, Vulg. Heb. 12, 23.
      3. 3. A Christian place of assembly, a church: ut nomine ecclesiae, id est populi qui continetur, significamus locum qui continet, Aug. Ep. 190, 5, 19; cf. also Amm. 21, 2 fin.; id. 28, 6 fin.
    2. B. An assembly, a meeting in gen., Aus. Ep. 24, 93.

Ecclēsĭastes, ae, m., = ἐκκλησιαστής, the Preacher.

  1. I. Lit.: filius David, i. e. Solomon, Vulg. Eccl. 1, 1.
  2. II. Transf.: Ecclesiastes, a book of the Old Testament, Tert. Monog. 3; Isid. Orig. 6, 2, 19.

ecclēsĭastĭcus, a, um, adj., = ἐκκλησιαστικός, of or belonging to the Church, ecclesiastical.

  1. I. Adj.: pax, Tert. Pudic. 22.
  2. II. Subst.: ecclesiasticus, i, m.
    1. A. A church officer, Cod. Th. 1, 3, 22.
    2. B. The name of the Book of Sirach, Isid. Orig. 6, 2, 31.

ecclēsĭecdĭcus, i, m., = ἐκκλησιεκδικός, a church proctor, Cod. Th. 1, 5, 34, 5.

ecclēsĭŏla, ae, f. dim. [ecclesia], a small church, Alcim. Ep. 39, 71 al.

eccum, eccos, v. ecce, II. D.

ecdĭcus, i, m., = ἐκδικός, i. q. cognitor or defensor civitatis, a syndic, solicitor of a community (esp. in Asia Minor), Cic. Fam. 13, 56, 1 and 3; Plin. Ep. 10, 111, 1.

ĕcĕre, v. eccere.

Ecĕtra, ae, f., = Ἐχέτρα, a city of the Volsci, Liv. 4, 61, 4; 6, 31. Its inhabitants are Ecĕtrāni, ōrum, m., = Ἐχέτρανοι, Liv. 2, 25; 3, 4, 2 sq.

ecfātus, ecfĕro, etc., v. eff-.

ēchēa, ōrum, n., = ἠχεῖα, vessels to increase the sound of the actors’ voices in a theatre, sounding-vessels, Vitr. 5, 5, 2 (1, 1, 9 written as Greek).

Echecrătes, ae, m., = Ἐχεκράτης, a Pythagorean philosopher, a contemporary of Plato, Cic. Fin. 5, 29, 87.

ĕchĕnēis, ĭdis, f., = ἐχενηΐς, the sucking-fish, remora, Echeneis remora, Linn.; Plin. 9, 25, 41, § 79; 35, 1, 1, § 2 sq.; Luc. 6, 675; Ov. Hal. 99; Isid. 12, 6, 34.

ĕchidna, ae, f., = ἔχιδνα,

  1. I. an adder, viper. The Furies were said to have them twined in their hair; hence: stipite te Stygio tumidisque adflavit Echidnis E tribus una soror, Ov. M. 10, 313.
  2. II. Nom. prop.
    1. A. Lernaea, the Lernaean hydra, killed by Hercules, Ov. M. 9, 69; 158; id. F. 5, 405.
    2. B. A monster, half woman and half serpent, the mother of Cerberus, Ov. M. 4, 501.
      Hence, Echidnēus, a, um, adj., of Echidna: canis, i. e. Cerberus, Ov. M. 7, 408.

Ĕchīnădes, um, f., = Ἐχινάδες, a small group of islands in the Ionian Sea, at the mouth of the Acheloüs, Mel. 2, 7, 10; Plin. 2, 85, 87, § 201; 4, 12, 19, § 53; Ov. M. 8, 589.

ĕchīnātus, a, um, adj. [echinus, a hedge-hog], set with prickles, prickly: calyx, Plin. 15, 23, 25, § 92: capitula echinata spinis, id. 27, 9, 47, § 71: folia, id. 22, 9, 11, § 24.

ĕchīnŏmētrae, ārum, m., = ἐχινομῆτραι, a sort of sea-urchin, Plin. 9, 31, 51, § 100.

ĕchīnŏphŏra, ae, f., = ἐχινοφόρα, a sort of concha, Plin. 32, 11, 53, § 147 (Sillig, actinophoroe).

ĕchīnŏpūs, ŏdis, m., = ἐχινόπους, a kind of thorn, otherwise unknown, Plin. 11, 8, 8, § 18.

1. ĕchīnus, i, m., = ἐχῖνος, a hedgehog, urchin.

  1. I. Prop., usually the (edible) sea-urchin, Echinus esculentus, Linn.; Varr. L. L. 5, § 77 Müll.; Afran. ap. Non. 216, 11; Plin. 9, 31, 51, § 100 sq.; Hor. Epod. 5, 28; id. S. 2, 4, 33; 2, 8, 52; id. Ep. 1, 15, 23; Petr. 69, 7.
    The land-urchin (otherwise called erinaceus), Claud. Idyll. 2, 17; cf. Isid. Orig. 12, 6, 57.
  2. II. Transf., of things having a similar shape.
    1. A. A copper vessel for the table, perh. to wash out the cups in, a rinsing-bowl, Hor. S. 1, 6, 117, v. Heindorf, ad h. l.; id. ib. 2, 8, 52.
    2. B. The prickly husk of a chestnut, Calp. Ecl. 2, 83; Pall. Insit. 155.
    3. C. In archit., an ornament under the chapiter of a Doric or Ionic column, an echinus, Vitr. 4, 3, 4; 4, 7, 3; cf. Müller, Archaeol. § 277.

2. Ĕchīnus or -os, i, f., = Ἐχῖνος.

  1. I. A city of Phthiotis, in Thessaly, Mel. 2, 3, 6; Plin. 4, 7, 14, § 28; Liv. 32, 33 al.
  2. II. A city of Acarnania, Plin. 4, 1, 2, § 5.

1. ĕchĭon, i, n., = ἔχιον, a medicament prepared from the ashes of adders, Plin. 29, 6, 38, § 119.

2. Ĕchīon, ŏnis, m.

  1. I. One of the heroes who sprang up from the dragon’s teeth sown by Cadmus; the husband of Agave and father of Pentheus, Ov. M. 3, 126; 10, 686; Stat. Th. 4, 569; Hyg. Fab. 178.
    Hence: Echione natus, for Pentheus, Ov. M. 3, 526.
    1. B. Derivv.
      1. 1. Echīŏnĭdes, ae, m., the son of Echion, i. e. Pentheus, Ov. M. 3, 513 and 701.
      2. 2. Echīŏnĭus, a, um, adj., meton. for Cadmean or Theban: hydrus, i. e. killed by Cadmus, Val. Fl. 8, 343: dens, id. 7, 554: aula, id. 7, 301; cf. arces, Ov. Tr. 5, 5, 53: nomen, Verg. A. 12, 515; cf. plebs, Stat. Th. 1, 169: Bacchus, Pall. Insit. 45.
  2. II. A son of Mercury, an Argonaut, and a sharer in the Calydonian hunt, Ov. M. 8, 311; Hyg. Fab. 14.
    Hence,
    1. B. Echīŏ-nĭus, a, um, adj., of Echion: lacerto, Ov. M. 8, 345.
  3. III. A celebrated Greek painter, Cic. Par. 5, 2, 37; id. Brut. 18, 70.

ĕchĭos, i, f., = ἔχιος, viper’s bugloss, a plant which was taken as a remedy for the viper’s bite, Plin. 25, 9, 58, § 104.

ĕchis, is, m., a plant, called also pseudoanchusa, and doris, Plin. 22, 20, 24, § 50.

echīte, ēs, f., = ἐχίτη, a plant, a kind of clematis, Plin. 24, 15, 89, § 139.

ĕchītis, is, m., = ἐχίτης, adder-stone, Plin. 37, 11, 72, § 187.

ēcho, ūs, f., = ἠχώ, repercussion of sound, echo (pure Lat. imago), Plin. 36, 15, 24, § 100; Pers. 1, 102; Aus. Mos. 297; id. Ep. 10, 23; 25, 68; Vulg. Sap. 17, 18.
Personified as a nymph, Ov. M. 3, 358 sq.; Aus. Epigr. 11, 7; 99, 1.

ēchōĭcus, a, um, adj., = ἠχωϊκός, echoing: elegi, Sid. Ep. 8, 11: metrum, in which one or more final syllables echo or rhyme to a preceding part of the verse, Serv. Centim. p. 1826 P. (cf. Burm. Anthol. Lat. 1, p. 558).

eclīgma, ătis, n., = ἔκλειγμα, a medicine to be taken by letting it melt in the mouth, an electuary, Plin. 21, 21, 89, § 154; 24, 7, 23, § 38; 26, 8, 35, § 110.
Hence, ecligmătĭum, ii, dim. n., Theod. Prisc. 2, 17.

eclīpsis, is, f., = ἔκλειψις (a forsaking, being absent): solis, an eclipse of the sun, Auct. Her. 3, 22, 36: lunae, Hyg. Astr. 4, 14; and without gen., Plin. 2, 12, 9, § 53 (pure Lat. defectio and defectus).

ecliptĭcus, a, um, adj., = ἐκλειπτικός, belonging to an eclipse: signa, Manil. 4, 816; 846 (cf. Plin. 2, 16, 13, § 68): linea, the ecliptic, Serv. Verg. A. 10, 216.

eclŏga, ae, f., = ἐκλογή, a selection, consisting of the finest passages, from a written composition.

  1. I. In gen.: eclogas ex Annali descriptas, Varr. ap. Charis. p. 97 P.
  2. II. In partic., a short poem of any kind, like the poems in the Sylvae of Statius; cf. Stat. S. 3 praef.; 4 praef.; the Idyls of Ausonius; cf. Aus. Idyll. 10 praef.; the Odes of Horace, id. ib. 11 praef., and in many MSS. of Horace; and in the grammarians the Bucolica of Vergil are also called Eclogae, Eclogues; cf. Heyne de Carm. Bucol. in Verg. Opp. ed. Wagn. I. p. 18.

eclŏgārĭus, a, um, adj. [ecloga], of or belonging to a selection; only as subst.

  1. I. eclŏgārĭum, i, n., a collection of selected poems, the title of a book of Ausonius, Weber, Corp. Poet. Lat. pp. 1254 sqq.
  2. II. eclŏgārii, ōrum, m., sc. libri, = eclogae, select passages from a work, Cic. Att. 16, 2 fin. Orell. N. cr.

ecnĕphĭas, ae, m., = ἐκνεφίας, a hurricane supposed to be produced by blasts from two opposite clouds, Plin. 2, 48, 49, § 131 (in Sen. Q. N. 5, 12, written as Greek).

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