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ăb, ā, abs, prep. with abl. This IndoEuropean particle (Sanscr. apa or ava, Etr. av, Gr. ὐπό, Goth. af, Old Germ. aba, New Germ. ab, Engl. of, off) has in Latin the following forms: ap, af, ab (av), au-, ā, ă; aps, abs, as-. The existence of the oldest form, ap, is proved by the oldest and best MSS. analogous to the prep. apud, the Sanscr. api, and Gr. ἐπί, and by the weakened form af, which, by the rule of historical grammar and the nature of the Latin letter f, can be derived only from ap, not from ab. The form af, weakened from ap, also very soon became obsolete. There are but five examples of it in inscriptions, at the end of the sixth and in the course of the seventh century B. C., viz.: AF VOBEIS, Inscr. Orell. 3114; AF MVRO, ib. 6601; AF CAPVA, ib. 3308; AF SOLO, ib. 589; AF LYCO, ib. 3036 (afuolunt = avolant, Paul. ex Fest. p. 26 Múll., is only a conjecture). In the time of Cicero this form was regarded as archaic, and only here and there used in account-books; v. Cic. Or. 47, 158 (where the correct reading is af, not abs or ab), and cf. Ritschl, Monum. Epigr. p. 7 sq.
The second form of this preposition, changed from ap, was ab, which has become the principal form and the one most generally used through all periods—and indeed the only oue used before all vowels and h; here and there also before some consonants, particularly l, n, r, and s; rarely before c, j, d, t; and almost never before the labials p, b, f, v, or before m, such examples as ab Massiliensibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 35, being of the most rare occurrence.
By changing the b of ab through v into u, the form au originated, which was in use only in the two compounds aufero and aufugio for abfero, ab-fugio; aufuisse for afuisse, in Cod. Medic. of Tac. A. 12, 17, is altogether unusual. Finally, by dropping the b of ab, and lengthening the a, ab was changed into á, which form, together with ab, predominated through all periods of the Latin language, and took its place before all consonants in the later years of Cicero, and after him almoet exclusively.
By dropping the b without lengthening the a, ab occurs in the form ă- in the two compounds ă-bîo and ă-pĕrio, q. v.
On the other hand, instead of reducing ap to a and ă, a strengthened collateral form, aps, was made by adding to ap the letter s (also used in particles, as in ex, mox, vix). From the first, aps was used only before the letters c, q, t, and was very soon changed into abs (as ap into ab): abs chorago, Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 79 (159 Ritschl): abs quivis, Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1: abs terra, Cato, R. R. 51; and in compounds: aps-cessero, Plaut. Trin. 3, 1, 24 (625 R.); id. ib. 3, 2, 84 (710 R): abs-condo, abs-que, abs-tineo, etc. The use of abs was confined almost exclusively to the combination abs te during the whole ante-classic period, and with Cicero till about the year 700 A. U. C. (= B. C. 54). After that time Cicero evidently hesitates between abs te and a te, but during the last five or six years of his life a te became predominant in all his writings, even in his letters; consequently abs te appears but rarely in later authors, as in Liv. 10, 19, 8; 26, 15, 12; and who, perhaps, also used abs conscendentibus, id. 28, 37, 2; v. Drakenb. ad. h. l. (Weissenb. ab).
Finally abs, in consequence of the following p, lost its b, and became ds- in the three compounds aspello, as-porto, and as-pernor (for asspernor); v. these words.
The late Lat. verb abbrevio may stand for adbrevio, the d of ad being assimilated to the following b.The fundamental signification of ab is departure from some fixed point (opp. to ad. which denotes motion to a point).

  1. I. In space, and,
  2. II. Fig., in time and other relations, in which the idea of departure from some point, as from source and origin, is included; Engl. from, away from, out of; down from; since, after; by, at, in, on, etc.
  1. I. Lit., in space: ab classe ad urbem tendunt, Att. ap. Non. 495, 22 (Trag. Rel. p. 177 Rib.): Caesar maturat ab urbe proficisci, Caes. B. G. 1, 7: fuga ab urbe turpissima, Cic. Att. 7, 21: ducite ab urbe domum, ducite Daphnim, Verg. E. 8, 68. Cicero himself gives the difference between ab and ex thus: si qui mihi praesto fuerit cum armatis hominibus extra meum fundum et me introire prohibuerit, non ex eo, sed ab (from, away from) eo loco me dejecerit. … Unde dejecti Galli? A Capitolio. Unde, qui cum Graccho fucrunt? Ex Capitolio, etc., Cic. Caecin. 30, 87; cf. Diom. p. 408 P., and a similar distinction between ad and in under ad.
    Ellipt.: Diogenes Alexandro roganti, ut diceret, si quid opus esset: Nunc quidem paululum, inquit, a sole, a little out of the sun, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 92.
    Often joined with usque: illam (mulierem) usque a mari supero Romam proficisci, all the way from, Cic. Clu. 68, 192; v. usque, I.
    And with ad, to denote the space passed over: siderum genus ab ortu ad occasum commeant, fromto, Cic. N. D. 2, 19 init.; cf. abin: venti a laevo latere in dextrum, ut sol, ambiunt, Plin. 2, 47, 48, § 128.
        1. b. Sometimes with names of cities and small islands, or with domus (instead of the usual abl.), partie., in militnry and nautieal language, to denote the marching of soldiers, the setting out of a flcet, or the departure of the inhabitants from some place: oppidum ab Aenea fugiente a Trojā conditum, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 33: quemadmodum (Caesar) a Gergovia discederet, Caes. B. G. 7, 43 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 80 fin.; Sall. J. 61; 82; 91; Liv. 2, 33, 6 al.; cf.: ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus quinque Arretium mittit, Caes. B. C. 1, 11 fin.; and: protinus a Corfinio in Siciliam miserat, id. ib. 1, 25, 2: profecti a domo, Liv. 40, 33, 2; of setting sail: cum exercitus vestri numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summā transmiserint, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 32; so id. Fam. 15, 3, 2; Caes. B. C. 3, 23; 3, 24 fin.: classe quā advecti ab domo fuerant, Liv. 8, 22, 6; of citizens: interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est, Liv. 21, 9, 3; cf.: legati ab Orico ad M. Valerium praetorem venerunt, id. 24, 40, 2.
        2. c. Sometimes with names of persons or with pronouns: pestem abige a me, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89 (Trag. v. 50 Vahl.): Quasi ad adulescentem a patre ex Seleucia veniat, Plaut. Trin. 3, 3, 41; cf.: libertus a Fuflis cum litteris ad Hermippum venit, Cic. Fl. 20, 47: Nigidium a Domitio Capuam venisse, id. Att. 7, 24: cum a vobis discessero, id. Sen. 22: multa merces tibi defluat ab Jove Neptunoque, Hor. C. 1, 28, 29 al. So often of a person instead of his house, lodging, etc.: videat forte hic te a patre aliquis exiens, from the father, i. e. from his house, Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 6: so a fratre, id. Phorm. 5, 1, 5: a Pontio, Cic. Att. 5, 3 fin.: ab , Ter. And. 1, 3, 21; and so often: a me, a nobis, a se, etc., from my, our, his house, etc., Plaut. Stich. 5, 1, 7; Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 50; Cic. Att. 4, 9, 1 al.
    1. B. Transf., without the idea of motion. To designate separation or distance, with the verbs abesse, distare, etc., and with the particles longe, procul, prope, etc.
      1. 1. Of separation: ego te afuisse tam diu a nobis dolui, Cic. Fam. 2, 1, 2: abesse a domo paulisper maluit, id. Verr. 2, 4, 18, § 39: tum Brutus ab Romā aberat, Sall. C. 40, 5: absint lacerti ab stabulis, Verg. G. 4, 14.
      2. 2. Of distance: quot milia fundus suus abesset ab urbe, Cic. Caecin. 10, 28; cf.: nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui, id. Att. 5, 16 fin.; and: hic locus aequo fere spatio ab castris Ariovisti et Caesaris aberat, Caes. B. G. 1, 43, 1: terrae ab hujusce terrae, quam nos incolimus, continuatione distantes, Cic. N. D. 2, 66, 164: non amplius pedum milibus duobus ab castris castra distabant, Caes. B. C. 1, 82, 3; cf. id. lb. 1, 3, 103.
        With adverbs: annos multos longinque ab domo bellum gerentes, Enn. ap. Non. 402, 3 (Trag. v. 103 Vahl.): cum domus patris a foro longe abesset, Cic. Cael. 7, 18 fin.; cf.: qui fontes a quibusdam praesidiis aberant longius, Caes. B. C. 3, 49, 5: quae procul erant a conspectu imperii, Cic. Agr. 2, 32, 87; cf.: procul a castris hostes in collibus constiterunt, Caes. B. G. 5, 17, 1; and: tu procul a patria Alpinas nives vides, Verg. E. 10, 46 (procul often also with simple abl.; v. procul): cum esset in Italia bellum tam prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, § 6; cf.: tu apud socrum tuam prope a meis aedibus sedebas, id. Pis. 11, 26; and: tam prope ab domo detineri, id. Verr. 2, 2, 3, § 6.
        So in Cæsar and Livy, with numerals to designate the measure of the distance: onerariae naves, quae ex eo loco ab milibus passuum octo vento tenebatur, eight miles distant, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 4; and without mentioning the terminus a quo: ad castra contenderunt, et ab milibus passunm minus duobus castra posuerunt, less than two miles off or distant, id. ib. 2, 7, 3; so id. ib. 2, 5, 32; 6, 7, 3; id. B. C. 1, 65; Liv. 38, 20, 2 (for which: duo milia fere et quingentos passus ab hoste posuerunt castra, id. 37, 38, 5).
      3. 3. To denote the side or direction from which an object is viewed in its local relations, = a parte, at, on, in: utrum hacin feriam an ab laevā latus? Enn. ap. Plaut. Cist. 3, 10 (Trag. v. 38 Vahl.); cf.: picus et cornix ab laevā, corvos, parra ab dexterā consuadent, Plaut. As. 2, 1, 12: clamore ab ea parte audito. on this side, Caes. B. G. 3, 26, 4: Gallia Celtica attingit ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, on the side of the Sequani, i. e. their country, id. ib. 1, 1, 5: pleraque Alpium ab Italiā sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt, on the Italian side, Liv. 21, 35, 11: non eadem diligentiā ab decumunā portā castra munita, at the main entrance, Caes. B. G. 3, 25 fin.: erat a septentrionibus collis, on the north, id. ib. 7, 83, 2; so, ab oriente, a meridie, ab occasu; a fronte, a latere, a tergo, etc. (v. these words).
  2. II. Fig.
    1. A. In time.
      1. 1. From a point of time, without reference to the period subsequently elapsed. After: Exul ab octava Marius bibit, Juv. 1,40: mulieres jam ab re divin[adot ] adparebunt domi, immediately after the sucrifice, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 4: Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu profectus, Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1: ab hac contione legati missi sunt, immediately after, Liv. 24, 22, 6; cf. id. 28, 33, 1; 40, 47, 8; 40, 49, 1 al.: ab eo magistratu, after this office, Sall. J. 63, 5: a summā spe novissima exspectabat, after the greatest hope, Tac. A. 6, 50 fin.
        Strengthened by the adverbs primum, confestim, statim, protinus, or the adj. recens, immediately after, soon after: ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni, Cic. Att. 1, 5, 4; so Suet. Tib. 68: confestim a proelio expugnatis hostium castris, Liv. 30, 36, 1: statim a funere, Suet. Caes. 85; and followed by statim: ab itinere statim, id. ib. 60: protinus ab adoptione, Vell. 2, 104, 3: Homerus qui recens ab illorum actate fuit, soon after their time, Cic. N. D. 3, 5; so Varr. R. R. 2, 8, 2; Verg. A. 6, 450 al. (v. also primum, confestim, etc.).
        Sometimes with the name of a person or place, instead of an action: ibi mihi tuae litterae binae redditae sunt tertio abs te die, i. e. after their departure from you, Cic. Att. 5, 3, 1: in Italiam perventum est quinto mense a Carthagine Nov[adot ], i. e. after leaving (= postquam a Carthagine profecti sunt), Liv. 21, 38, 1: secundo Punico (bello) Scipionis classis XL. die a securi navigavit, i. e. after its having been built, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 192.
        Hence the poct. expression: ab his, after this (cf. ὲκ τούτων), i. e. after these words, hereupon, Ov. M. 3, 273; 4, 329; 8, 612; 9, 764.
      2. 2. With reference to a subsequent period. From, since, after: ab horā tertiā bibebatur, from the third hour, Cic. Phil. 2, 41: infinito ex tempore, non ut antea, ab Sullā et Pompeio consulibus, since the consulship of, id. Agr. 2, 21, 56: vixit ab omni aeternitate, from all eternity, id. Div. 1, 51, 115: cum quo a condiscipulatu vivebat conjunctissime, Nep. Att. 5, 3: in Lycia semper a terrae motu XL. dies serenos esse, after an earthquake, Plin. 2, 96, 98, § 211 al.: centesima lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodii, since the death of, Cic. Mil. 35, 98; cf.: cujus a morte quintus hic et tricesimus annus est, id. Sen. 6, 19; and: ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesumiun annum, since, Sall. C. 47, 2: diebus triginta, a quâ die materia caesa est, Caes. B. C. 1, 36.
        Sometimes joined with usque and inde: quod augures omnes usque ab Romulo decreverunt, since the time of, Cic. Vat. 8, 20: jam inde ab infelici pugnà ceciderant animi, from the very beginning of, Liv. 2, 65 fin.
        Hence the adverbial expressions ab initio, a principio, a primo, at, in, or from the beginning, at first; v. initium, principium, primus. Likewise ab integro, anew, afresh; v. integer.
        Abad, from (a time) … to: ab horà octavā ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus, Cic. Att. 7, 8, 4; cf.: cum ab horā septimā ad vesperum pugnatum sit, Caes. B. G. 1, 26, 2; and: a quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt septingenti octoginta unus, Vell. 1, 8, 4; and so in Plautus strengthened by usque: pugnata pugnast usque a mane ad vesperum, from morning to evening, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97; id. Most. 3, 1, 3; 3, 2, 80.
        Rarely ab … in: Romani ab sole orto in multum diei stetere in acie, fromtill late in the day, Liv. 27, 2, 9; so Col. 2, 10, 17; Plin. 2, 31, 31, § 99; 2, 103, 106, § 229; 4, 12, 26, § 89.
        1. b. Particularly with nouns denoting a time of life: qui homo cum animo inde ab ineunte aetate depugnat suo, from an early age, from early youth, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 24; so Cic. Off. 2, 13, 44 al.: mihi magna cum co jam inde a pueritiā fuit semper famillaritas, Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 9; so, a pueritiā, Cic. Tusc. 2, 11, 27 fin.; id. Fam. 5, 8, 4: jam inde ab adulescentiā, Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 16: ab adulescentiā, Cic. Rep. 2, 1: jam a primā adulescentiā, id. Fam. 1, 9, 23: ab ineunte adulescentiā, id. ib. 13, 21, 1; cf. followed by ad: usque ad hanc aetatem ab incunte adulescentiā, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 20: a primis temporibus aetatis, Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3: a teneris unguiculis, from childhood, id. ib. 1, 6, 2: usque a togà purā, id. Att. 7, 8, 5: jam inde ab incunabulis, Liv. 4, 36, 5: a primā lanugine, Suet. Oth. 12: viridi ab aevo, Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 17 al.; rarely of animals: ab infantiā, Plin. 10, 63, 83, § 182.
          Instead of the nom. abstr. very often (like the Greek ὲκ παιὸων, etc.) with concrete substantives: a pucro, ab adulescente, a parvis, etc., from childhood, etc.: qui olim a puero parvulo mihi paedagogus fuerat, Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 90; so, a pausillo puero, id. Stich. 1, 3, 21: a puero, Cic. Ac. 2, 36, 115; id. Fam. 13, 16, 4 (twice) al.: a pueris, Cic. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. de Or. 1, 1, 2 al.: ab adulescente, id. Quint. 3, 12: ab infante, Col. 1, 8, 2: a parvā virgine, Cat. 66, 26 al.
          Likewise and in the same sense with adject.: a parvo, from a little child, or childhood, Liv. 1, 39, 6 fin.; cf.: a parvis, Ter. And. 3, 3, 7; Cic. Leg. 2, 4, 9: a parvulo, Ter. And. 1, 1, 8; id. Ad. 1, 1, 23; cf.: ab parvulis, Caes. B. G. 6, 21, 3: ab tenero, Col. 5, 6, 20; and rarely of animals: (vacca) a bimā aut trimā fructum ferre incipit, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 13.
    2. B. In other relations in which the idea of going forth, proceeding, from something is included.
      1. 1. In gen. to denote departure, separation, deterring, avoiding, intermitting, etc., or distance, difference, etc., of inanimate or abstract things. From: jus atque aecum se a malis spernit procul, Enn. ap. Non. 399, 10 (Trag. v. 224 Vahl.): suspitionem et culpam ut ab se segregent, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 42: qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem, Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18: hic ab artificio suo non recessit, id. ib. 1, 10, 20 al.: quod si exquiratur usque ab stirpe auctoritas, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 180: condicionem quam ab te peto, id. ib. 2, 4, 87; cf.: mercedem gloriae flagitas ab iis, quorum, etc., Cic. Tusc. 1, 15, 34: si quid ab illo acceperis, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 90: quae (i. e. antiquitas) quo propius aberat ab ortu et divinā progenie, Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26: ab defensione desistere, Caes. B. C. 2, 12, 4: ne quod tempus ab opere intermitteretur, id. B. G. 7, 24, 2: ut homines adulescentīs a dicendi studio deterream, Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 117, etc.
        Of distance (in order, rank, mind, or feeling): qui quartus ab Arcesilā fuit, the fourth in succession from, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 46: tu nunc eris alter ab illo, next after him, Verg. E. 5, 49; cf.: Aiax, heros ab Achille secundus, next in rank to, Hor. S. 2, 3, 193: quid hoc ab illo differt, from, Cic. Caecin. 14, 39; cf.: hominum vita tantum distat a victu et cultu bestiarum, id. Off. 2, 4, 15; and: discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam, id. Rep. 3, 9 fin. (v. the verbs differo, disto, discrepo, dissideo, dissentio, etc.): quae non aliena esse ducerem a dignitate, Cic. Fam. 4, 7: alieno a te animo fuit, id. Deiot. 9, 24 (v. alienus).
        So the expression ab re (qs. aside from the matter, profit; cf. the opposite, in rem), contrary to one’s profit, to a loss, disadvantageous (so in the affirmative very rare and only ante-class.): subdole ab re consulit, Plaut. Trin. 2, 1, 12; cf. id. Capt. 2, 2, 88; more frequently and class. (but not with Cicero) in the negative, non, haud, ab re, not without advantage or profit, not useless or unprofitable, adcantageous: haut est ab re aucupis, Plaut. As. 1, 3, 71: non ab re esse Quinctii visum est, Liv. 35, 32, 6; so Plin. 27, 8, 35; 31, 3, 26; Suet. Aug. 94; id. Dom. 11; Gell. 18, 14 fin.; App. Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 31, 22 al. (but in Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 44, ab re means with respect to the money matter).
      2. 2. In partic.
        1. a. To denote an agent from whom an action proceeds, or by whom a thing is done or takes place. By, and in archaic and solemn style, of. So most frequently with pass. or intrans. verbs with pass. signif., when the active object is or is considered as a living being: Laudari me abs te, a laudato viro, Naev. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 31, 67: injuriā abs te afficior, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 24, 38: a patre deductus ad Scaevolam, Cic. Lael. 1, 1: ut tamquam a praesentibus coram haberi sermo videretur, id. ib. 1, 3: disputata ab eo, id. ib. 1, 4 al.: illa (i. e. numerorum ac vocum vis) maxime a Graeciā vetere celebrata, id. de Or. 3, 51, 197: ita generati a naturā sumus, id. Off. 1, 29, 103; cf.: pars mundi damnata a rerum naturā, Plin. 4, 12, 26, § 88: niagna adhibita cura est a providentiā deorum, Cic. N. D. 2, 51 al.
          With intrans. verbs: quae (i. e. anima) calescit ab eo spiritu, is warmed by this breath, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 138; cf. Ov. M. 1, 417: (mare) quā a sole collucet, Cic. Ac. 2, 105: salvebis a meo Cicerone, i. e. young Cicero sends his compliments to you, id. Att. 6, 2 fin.: a quibus (Atheniensibus) erat profectus, i. e. by whose command, Nep. Milt. 2, 3: ne vir ab hoste cadat, Ov. H. 9, 36 al.
          A substantive or adjective often takes the place of the verb (so with de, q. v.): levior est plaga ab amico quam a debitore, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 7; cf.: a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus, id. Off. 2, 6, 19: si calor est a sole, id. N. D. 2, 52: ex iis a te verbis (for a te scriptis), id. Att. 16, 7, 5: metu poenae a Romanis, Liv. 32, 23, 9: bellum ingens a Volscis et Aequis, id. 3, 22, 2: ad exsolvendam fldem a consule, id. 27, 5, 6.
          With an adj.: lassus ab equo indomito, Hor. S. 2, 2, 10: Murus ab ingenic notior ille tuo, Prop. 5, 1, 126: tempus a nostris triste malis, time made sad by our misfortunes, Ov. Tr. 4, 3, 36.
          Different from per: vulgo occidebantur: per quos et a quibus? by whom and upon whose orders? Cic. Rosc. Am. 29, 80 (cf. id. ib. 34, 97: cujus consilio occisus sit, invenio; cujus manu sit percussus, non laboro); so, ab hoc destitutus per Thrasybulum (i. e. Thrasybulo auctore), Nep. Alc. 5, 4.
          Ambiguity sometimes arises from the fact that the verb in the pass. would require ab if used in the active: si postulatur a populo, if the people demand it, Cic. Off. 2, 17, 58, might also mean, if it is required of the people; on the contrary: quod ab eo (Lucullo) laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, not since he did not expect military renown, but since they did not expect military renown from him, Cic. Ac. 2, 1, 2, and so often; cf. Rudd. II. p. 213. (The use of the active dative, or dative of the agent, instead of ab with the pass., is well known, Zumpt, § 419. It is very seldom found in prose writers of the golden age of Roman liter.; with Cic. sometimes joined with the participles auditus, cognitus, constitutus, perspectus, provisus, susceptus; cf. Halm ad Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 71, and ad ejusdem, Cat. 1, 7 fin.; but freq. at a later period; e. g. in Pliny, in Books 2-4 of H. N., more than twenty times; and likewise in Tacitus seventeen times. Vid. the passages in Nipperd. ad Tac. A. 2, 49.) Far more unusual is the simple abl. in the designation of persons: deseror conjuge, Ov. H. 12, 161; so id. ib. 5, 75; id. M. 1, 747; Verg. A. 1, 274; Hor. C. 2, 4, 9; 1, 6, 2; and in prose, Quint. 3, 4, 2; Sen. Contr. 2, 1; Curt. 6, 7, 8; cf. Rudd. II. p. 212; Zumpt ad Quint. V. p. 122 Spalding.
          Hence the adverbial phrase a se = ὐφ’ ἑαυτοῦ, suā sponte, of one’s own uccord, spontaneously: ipsum a se oritur et suā sponte nascitur, Cic. Fin. 2, 24, 78: (urna) ab se cantat quoja sit, Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 21 (al. eāpse; cf. id. Men. 1, 2, 66); so Col. 11, 1, 5; Liv. 44, 33, 6.
        2. b. With names of towns to denote origin, extraction, instead of gentile adjectives. From, of: pastores a Pergamide, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 1: Turnus ab Aricia, Liv. 1, 50, 3 (for which Aricinus, id. 1, 51, 1): obsides dant trecentos principum a Corā atque Pometiā liberos, Liv. 2, 22, 2; and poet.: O longa mundi servator ab Albā, Auguste, thou who art descended from the old Alban race of kings (= oriundus, or ortus regibus Albanis), Prop. 5, 6, 37.
        3. c. In giving the etymology of a name: eam rem (sc. legem, Gr. νόμον) illi Graeco putant nomine a suum cuique tribuendo appellatam, ego nostro a legendo, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 19: annum intervallum regni fuit: id ab reinterregnum appellatum, Liv. 1, 17, 6: (sinus maris) ab nomine propinquae urbis Ambracius appellatus, id. 38, 4, 3; and so Varro in his Ling. Lat., and Pliny, in Books 1-5 of H. N., on almost every page. (Cf. also the arts. ex and de.)
        4. d. With verbs of beginning and repeating: a summo bibere, in Plaut. to drink in succession from the one at the head of the table: da, puere, ab summo, Plaut. As. 5, 2, 41; so, da ab Delphio cantharum circum, id Most. 1, 4, 33: ab eo nobis causa ordienda est potissimum, Cic. Leg. 1, 7, 21: coepere a fame mala, Liv. 4, 12, 7: cornicem a caudā de ovo exire, tail-foremost, Plin. 10, 16, 18: a capite repetis, quod quaerimus, Cic. Leg. 1, 6, 18 al.
        5. e. With verbs of freeing from, defending, or protecting against any thing: a foliis et stercore purgato, Cato, R. R. 65 (66), 1: tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi? Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 23; cf.: Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant, Liv. 21, 11, 5: expiandum forum ab illis nefarii sceleris vestigiis, Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11: haec provincia non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda, id. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14 (v. defendo): ab incendio urbem vigiliis munitam intellegebat, Sall. C. 32: ut neque sustinere se a lapsu possent, Liv. 21, 35, 12: ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso caveret, Cic. Sest. 64, 133.
        6. f. With verbs of expecting, fearing, hoping, and the like, ab = a parte, as, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 4: cum eadem metuam ab hac parte, since I fear the same from this side; hence, timere, metuere ab aliquo, not, to be afraid of any one, but, to fear something (proceeding from) from him: el metul a Chryside, Ter. And. 1, 1, 79; cf.: ab Hannibale metuens, Liv. 23, 36; and: metus a praetore, id. 23, 15, 7; v. Weissenb. ad h. l.: a quo quidem genere, judices, ego numquam timui, Cic. Sull. 20, 59: postquam nec ab Romanis robis ulla est spes, you can expect nothing from the Romans, Liv. 21, 13, 4.
        7. g. With verbs of fastening and holding: funiculus a puppi religatus, Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154: cum sinistra capillum ejus a vertice teneret, Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 3.
        8. h. Ulcisci se ab aliquo, to take vengeance on one: a ferro sanguis humanus se ulciscitur, Plin. 34, 14, 41 fin.
        9. i. Cognoscere ab aliquâ re to knoio or learn by means of something (different from ab aliquo, to learn from some one): id se a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse, Caes. B. G. 1, 22.
        10. j. Dolere, laborare, valere ab, instead of the simple abl.: doleo ab animo, doleo ab oculis, doleo ab aegritudine, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 62: a morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui, id. Ep. 1, 2, 26; cf. id. Aul. 2, 2, 9: a frigore et aestu ne quid laborent, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17; so, a frigore laborantibus, Plin. 32, 10, 46, § 133; cf.: laborare ab re frumentaria, Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1; id. B. C. 3, 9; v. laboro.
        11. k. Where verbs and adjectives are joined with ab, instead of the simple abl., ab defines more exactly the respect in which that which is expressed by the verb or adj. is to be understood, in relation to, with regard to, in respect to, on the part of: ab ingenio improbus, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 59: a me pudica’st, id. Curc. 1, 1, 51: orba ab optimatibus contio, Cic. Fl. 23, 54; ro Ov. H. 6,156: securos vos ab hac parte reddemus, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24 fin. (v. securus): locus copiosus a frumento, Cic. Att. 5, 18, 2; cf.: sumus imparati cum a militibas tum a pecunià, id. ib. 7, 15 fin.: ille Graecus ab omni laude felicior, id. Brut. 16, 63: ab unà parte haud satis prosperuin, Liv. 1, 32, 2 al.; so often in poets ab arte = arte, artfully, Tib. 1, 5, 4; 1, 9, 66; Ov. Am. 2, 4, 30.
        12. l. In the statement of the motive instead of ex, propter, or the simple abl. causae, from, out of, on account of, in consequence of: ab singulari amore scribo, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 9, 7, B fin.: linguam ab irrisu exserentem, thrusting out the tongue in derision, Liv. 7, 10, 5: ab honore, id. 1, 8; so, ab irā, a spe, ab odio, v. Drak. ad Liv. 24, 30, 1: 26, 1, 3; cf. also Kritz and Fabri ad Sall. J. 31, 3, and Fabri ad Liv. 21, 36, 7.
        13. m. Especially in the poets instead of the gen.: ab illo injuria, Ter. And. 1, 1, 129: fulgor ab auro, Lucr. 2, 5: dulces a fontibus undae, Verg. G. 2, 243.
        14. n. In indicating a part of the whole, for the more usual ex, of, out of: scuto ab novissimis uni militi detracto, Caes. B. G. 2, 25, 1: nonnuill ab novissimis, id. ib.; Cic. Sest. 65, 137; cf. id. ib. 59 fin.: a quibus (captivis) ad Senatum missus (Regulus).
        15. o. In marking that from which any thing proceeds, and to which it belongs: qui sunt ab disciplinā, Cic. Tusc. 2, 3, 7: ab eo qui sunt, id. Fin. 4, 3, 7: nostri illi a Platone et Aristotele aiunt, id. Mur. 30, 63 (in imitation of οί ὐπό τινος).
        16. p. To designate an office or dignity (with or without servus; so not freq. till after the Aug. period; in Cic. only once): Pollex, servus a pedibus meus, one of my couriers, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1; so, a manu servus, a secretary, Suet. Caes. 74: Narcissum ab eplstulis (secretary) et Pallantem a rationibus (accountant), id. Claud. 28; and so, ab actis, ab admissione, ab aegris, ab apothecā, ab argento, a balneis, a bibliothecà, a codicillis, a jumentis, a potione, etc. (v. these words and Inscr. Orell. vol. 3, Ind. xi. p. 181 sq.).
        17. q. The use of ab before adverbs is for the most part peculiar to later Latinity: a peregre, Vitr. 5, 7 (6), 8: a foris, Plin. 17, 24, 37; Vulg. Gen, 7, 16; ib. Matt. 23, 27: ab intus, ib. ib. 7, 15: ab invicem, App. Herb. 112; Vulg. Matt. 25, 32; Cypr. Ep. 63, 9: Hier. Ep. 18: a longe, Hyg. Fab. 257; Vulg. Gen. 22, 4; ib. Matt. 26, 58: a modo, ib. ib. 23, 39; Hier. Vit. Hilar.: a nune, Vulg. Luc. 1, 48: a sursum, ib. Marc. 15, 38.
        1. a. Ab is not repeated like most other prepositions (v. ad, ex, in, etc.) with pron. interrog. or relat. after subst. and pron. demonstr. with ab: Arsinoën, Stratum, Naupactum … fateris ab hostibus esse captas. Quibus autem hostibus? Nempe iis, quos, etc., Cic. Pis. 37, 91: a rebus gerendis senectus abstrahit. Quibus? An iis, quae in juventute geruntur et viribus? id. Sen. 6: a Jove incipiendum putat. Quo Jove? id. Rep. 1, 36, 56: res publica, quascumque vires habebit, ab iis ipsis, quibus tenetur, de te propediem impetrabit, id. Fam. 4, 13, 5.
        2. b. Ab in Plantus is once put after the word which it governs: quo ab, As. 1, 1, 106.
        3. c. It is in various ways separated from the word which it governs: a vitae periculo, Cic. Brut. 91, 313: a nullius umquam me tempore aut commodo, id. Arch. 6, 12: a minus bono, Sall. C. 2, 6: a satis miti principio, Liv. 1, 6, 4: damnis dives ab ipsā suis, Ov. H. 9, 96; so id. ib. 12, 18; 13, 116.
        4. d. The poets join a and que, making aque; but in good prose que is annexed to the following abl. (a meque, abs teque, etc.): aque Chao, Verg. G. 4, 347: aque mero, Ov. M. 3, 631: aque viro, id. H. 6, 156: aque suis, id. Tr. 5, 2, 74 al. But: a meque, Cic. Fam. 2, 16, 1: abs teque, id. Att. 3, 15, 4: a teque, id. ib. 8, 11, § 7: a primāque adulescentiā, id. Brut. 91, 315 al.
        5. e. A Greek noun joined with ab stands in the dat.: a parte negotiati, hoc est πραγματικῆ, removisse, Quint. 3, 7, 1.
  3. III. In composition ab,
      1. 1. Retains its original signif.: abducere, to take or carry away from some place: abstrahere, to draw auay; also, downward: abicere, to throw down; and denoting a departure from the idea of the simple word, it has an effect apparently privative: absimilis, departing from the similar, unlike: abnormis, departing from the rule, unusual (different from dissimilis, enormis); and so also in amens = a mente remotus, alienus (out of one’s senses, without self-control, insane): absurdus, missounding, then incongruous, irrational: abutor (in one of its senses), to misuse: aborior, abortus, to miscarry: abludo; for the privative force the Latin regularly employs in-, v. 2. in.
      2. 2. It more rarely designates completeness, as in absorbere, abutor (to use up). (The designation of the fourth generation in the ascending or descending line by ab belongs here only in appearance; as abavus for quartus pater, great-great-grandfather, although the Greeks introduced ὺπόπαππος; for the immutability of the syllable ab in abpatrnus and abmatertera, as well as the signif. of the word abavus, grandfather’s grandfather, imitated in abnepos, grandchild’s grandchild, seems to point to a derivation from avi avus, as Festus, p. 13 Müll., explains atavus, by atta avi, or, rather, attae avus.)