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circĭtor (or circuĭtor, Petr. 53, 10), ōris, m. [for circumitor, from circumeo, lit. one who goes around, hence],

  1. I. A watchman (of gardens. buildings, etc.; postclass.), Auct. Priap. 16, 1, Front. Aquaed. 117; Petr. 1 1.
  2. II. In milit. lang., plur., those who go the rounds and visit the posts of sentinels, patrols, Veg. Mil. 3, 8; Hier. Ep. 61, n. 7.
    Sing.’ CIRCITOR, Inscr. Murat. 540, 2.
  3. III. A pedler, Dig. 14, 3, 5, § 4.

circŭĕo, īre, v. circumeo.

circŭĭtĭo (circŭmĭtĭo, Cic. Div. 2, 17, 40; 2, 61, 127; Liv. 3, 6, 9; Front. de Or. 3; Amm. 24, 2, 2), ōnis, f. [circumeo].

  1. I. A going round; in milit. lang., the rounds: circuitio ac cura (vigiliarum) aedilium plebei erat. Liv. 3, 6, 9.
      1. 2. A circuit: muni mentum fluminis circumitione vallatum, Amm 24, 2, 2.
    1. B. Trop., a circuitous mode, a circumlocution. ita aperte ipsam rem modo locutus, nil circuitione usus es, Ter. And. 1, 2, 31: quid opus est circumitione et anfractu? Cic. Div. 2, 61, 127, cf. Auct. Her. 4, 32, 43: Epicurus circuitione quādam (in an indirect manner) deos tollens, Cic. Div. 2, 17, 40.
  2. II. Meton. (abstr. pro concr.), a place for going round something, a way, passage, corridor, Vitr. 4, 4; 6, 3; 10, 19.
    1. B. A circumference, compass, Vitr. 1, 5; 2, 10.

circŭĭtor, ōris, v. circitor,

1. circŭĭtus, a, um, Part., from circumeo.

2. circŭĭtus (circŭmĭtus, Cic. N. D. 1, 12, 29; 2, 62, 155; 2, 19, 49; id. Rep. 1, 29, 45; Quint. 1, 10, 42 al.; cf. circumeo, and v. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 737), ūs, m. [circumeo] (class. in prose and poetry).

  1. I. A going round, a circling, revolving, a revolution: solis, Cic. N. D. 2, 19, 49; cf. Plin. 2, 23, 21, § 86; Cic. Rep. 6, 12, 12: nox et dies unum circumitum orbis efflcit, id. Univ. 9 prope med.: Asiae Syriaeque circuitu Aegyptum petit, Suet. Aug. 17: mundi, Plin. 2, 5, 4, § 11.
    1. B. In medic. lang., the periodical return of a disease, Cels. 3, 5; Ser. Samm. 95.
      Far more freq.,
  2. II. Meton.
    1. A. (Abstr. pro concr.). A circuit, compass, a way around: plurimum refert, cujus sit formae ille circuitus, Quint. 1, 10, 40; cf. id. 1, 10, 42; 1, 5, 26; Augur. ap. Gell. 13, 14, 1: collis, quem propter magnitudinem circuitus opere circumplecti non poterant, Caes. B. G. 7, 83: illi operibus vincebant, quod interiore spatio minorem circuitum habebant, id. B. C. 3, 44: XV milia passuum circuitu amplexus, id. ib.; so id B G. 1, 41; Plin. 4, 12, 19, § 54: brevi per mon tes circuitu praemissis, qui munirent viam, Liv. 34, 28, 2; 4, 27, 8; Curt. 3, 11, 19: qualis esset natura montis et qualis in circuitu ascensus, Caes. B. G. 1, 21; 2, 29; 2, 30: longo circuitu petere regiones, id. ib. 7, 45; Verg. A. 11, 767: saevaque circuitu curvantem bracchia longo, Ov M. 2, 82: circumitus Siciliae quid tibi novi ostenderit, Sen. Ep. 79, 1.
    2. B. = ambitus, an open space left around a building, Varr. L. L. 5, § 22; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p 5, 4 Müll.; Inscr Marin. Fratr. Arval. p. 369.
  3. III. Trop
    1. A. In rhet., a period: in toto circuitu illo orationis, quem Graeci περιοδον, nos tum ambitum, tum circuitum, tum comprehensionem, aut continuationem aut circumscriptionem dicimus, Cic. Or. 61, 204; cf. Quint 9, 4, 124: modo ne circuitus ipse verborum sit aut brevior quam aures exspectent, aut longior, etc., Cic. de Or 3, 49, 191; 3, 51, 198; id. Or. 23, 78; Quint. 8, 6, 59; 11, 1, 6.
      In plur.: oratio longiores habet saepe circuitus, Quint. 9, 4, 60.
    2. B. In the postAug. per., a circumlocution, periphrasis, a roundabout way in speech or action; an indirect procedure.
      1. 1. Of speech, ea, quae proprie signari poterant, circuitu coeperint enuntiare, Quint. 12, 10, 16; 12, 10, 41; 5, 7, 16; 10, 1, 12: loqui per circuitus, Mart. 11, 15, 8.
      2. 2. Of action: cur circuitu petis gloriam, quae ad manum posita est? Curt. 9, 3, 14: negavi circuitu agendum, sed plane jure civili dimicandum, Petr 13 fin.

circŭlāris, e, adj. [circulus], circular, round (post-class.): flexus, Mart. Cap. 6, § 579; 8, § 814 init.

circŭlātim, adv. [circulor], circularly, in a circle (post-Aug. and rare).

  1. I. Prop.: pectori circulatim cerotaria apponere, Cael. Aur. Acut. 2, 29, 153; id. Tard. 1, 4, 91; Petr. 67 Gronov. (Büch circumlatum).
  2. II. Fig., in circles, groups, or companies: multitudo circulatim suo quaeque more lamentata est, * Suet. Caes. 84 fin.

* circŭlātĭo, ōnis, f. [circulor], a circular course, revolution: Mercurii, Vitr. 9, 1, 8.

circŭlātor, ōris, m. [circulor].

  1. I. A pedler: auctionum, Asin. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 32, 3.
  2. II. A mountebank, quack, Cels. 5, 27, 3; Petr 68, 6; Dig. 47, 11, 11; Sen. Ben. 6, 11, 2; App. M. 1, p. 103, 38.
    Of noisy philosophers, Sen. Ep. 29, 5

circŭlātōrĭus, a, um, adj. [circulator], of a mountebank, quackish (post-Aug.): jactatio, Quint. 2, 4, 15: volubilitas, id. 10, 1, 8: praestigiae, Tert. Apol. 23.

circŭlātrix, īcis, f. [circulator], a female mountebank or stroller, Auct. Priap. 18, 1.
Adj.: lingua, of a mountebank, Mart. 10, 3, 2.

circŭlo, āre, v. a. (post-class. collat. form of circulor) [circulus],

  1. I. to make circu lar or round, App. flor. 9, p. 346, 21. circulatus gressus, Cael. Aur Tard. 1, 1: digitos. bent in, App. Mag. 89, p. 330.
  2. II. Esp., to encircle, encompass: verticem varietatibus, Mart. Cap. 7, § 728: sideribus, id. 8, § 831; 4, § 333 al.; cf. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 269.

circŭlor, ātus, 1, v. dep. [circulator].

  1. I. To form a circle (of men) about one’s self, or to gather in a company or circle for conversation, * Cic. Brut. 54, 200: totis vero castris milites circulari et dolere, etc., Caes. B. C. 1, 64.
    Hence,
  2. II. Of mountebanks, to collect people around one’s self, Sen. Ep. 40, 3; 52, 7.

circŭlus, i, m. (contr. circlus, like vinclum = vinculum, Verg. G. 3, 166) [kindred with κίρκος, κύκλος, circinus],

  1. I. a circular figure, a circle: circulus aut orbis, qui κύκλος Graece dicitur, Cic. N. D. 2, 18, 47: muri exterior, Liv. 36, 9, 12: circulus ad speciem caelestis arcūs orbem solis ambiit, Suet. Aug. 95.
    1. B. Esp.
      1. 1. In astronomy, a circular course, orbit: stellae circulos suos orbesque conficiunt celeritate mirabili, Cic. Rep. 6, 15, 15: aequinoctialis, solstitialis, septentrionalis, Varr. L. L. 9, § 24; Ov. M. 2, 516: lacteus, the Milky Way, Plin. 2, 25, 23, § 91; 18, 29, 69, § 230: signifer, Vitr. 6, 1, 1; 9, 8, 8.
      2. 2. In geog., a zone or belt of the eartb’s surface: plura sunt segmenta mundi, quae nostri circulos appellavere, Graeci parallelos, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 212 sqq.
    2. C. Trop., of time: mensis artiore praecingitur circulo, Sen. Ep. 12, 6.
  2. II. Meton.
    1. A. Any circular body; a ring, necklace, hoop, chain, Verg. A. 5, 559; 10, 138; id. G. 3, 166; Plin. 14, 21, 27, § 132; Suet. Aug 80.
    2. B. A circle or company for social intercourse (very freq.): in conviviis rodunt, in circulis vellicant, Cic. Balb. 26, 57; so with convivia also, Liv. 32, 20, 3; 34, 61, 5; 44, 22, 8; Domit. Mars. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 105; Tac. A. 3, 54; Nep. Epam. 3, 3; Mart. 2, 86, 11; 10, 62, 5: cir culos aliquos et sessiunculas consectarl, Cic. Fin. 5, 20, 56 per fora et circulos locuti sunt, Tac Agr 43; cf Quint. 12, 10, 74: quemcumque patrem familias arripuissetis ex aliquo circulo, Cic. de Or. 1, 34, 159; 1, 38, 174: de circulo se subducere, to withdraw from the assembly, id. Q. Fr. 3, 4, 1; Quint. 2, 12 10; cf.: densa circumstantium corona latissimum judicium multiplici circulo ambibat, Plin. Ep 6, 33, 3.

circum [properly acc. from circus = κίρκος], adv. and prep., designates either an entire encompassing or surrounding of an object, or a proximity only partially em. bracing or comprehending it, around, about, all around, περί, ἀμφί

  1. I. Adv.
    1. A. Around, round about, all around, etc., πέριξ: furcas circum offigito, Cato, R. R. 48, 2; Varr. R. R. 3, 14, 1; Verg A 3, 230: quia (locus) vastis circum saltibus claudebatur, Tac. A. 4, 25: molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho, Verg. E. 3, 45: age tu interim Da cito ab Delphio Cantharum circum, Plaut. Most. 1, 4, 33: quae circum essent opera tueri, Caes. B. C 2, 10: interea Rutuli portis circum omnibus instant, Verg. A. 10, 118 (i. e. circumcirca fusi: nam modo circum adverbium loci est, Serv.): omnem, quae nuno .umida circum Caligat, nu. bem eripiam, id. ib. 2, 605; Tib. 1, 3, 77; 1, 5, 11. sed circum tutae sub moenibus urbis aquantur, round about under the walls, Verg. G 4, 193. faciundum haras quadratas circum binos pedes, all around, i. e. on every side, two feet, Varr. R. R. 3, 10, 3 Schneid.
        1. b. Strengthened with undique (in later Latin also sometimes written as one word, circumundique), from everywhere around, around on all sides: circum Undique convenere, Verg. A. 4, 416; Lucr. 3, 404: clausis circum undique portis, Stat. S. 2, 5, 13; 5, 1, 155; id. Th. 2, 228: oppositu circumundique aliarum aedium, Gell. 4, 5, 3; 13, 24, 1; 14, 2, 9; so with totus and omnis, Varr. R. R. 3, 14, 1; Verg. A. 10, 118.
    2. B. Of an incomplete circuit, esp. of the part that meets the view, lies on the hither side, etc. (v. under II.): hostilibus circum litoribus, Tac. A. 2, 24: aestasaperto circum pelago peramoena, id. ib. 4, 67: gentibus innumeris circum infraque relictis, Ov. M. 4, 668; Stat. Achill. 1, 56: corpus servans circumque supraque vertitur, id. Th. 9, 114; Albin. Carm. ap. Maecen. 46.
  2. II. Prep. with acc.
    1. A. Around, abow (implying a complete circuit): armillas quattuor facito, quas circum orbem indas, Cato, R. R. 21, 4: terra circum axem se summā celeritate convertit, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; Quint. 2, 17, 19 Zumpt N. cr.: ligato circum collum sudario, Suet. Ner. 51: terque novas circum felix eat hostia fruges, Verg. G. 1, 345: at genitor circum caput omne micantes Deposuit radios, Ov. M. 2, 40.
    2. B. As in adv. B., of an incomplete circuit, about, upon, around, near: capillus sparsus, promissus, circum caput Rejectus neglegenter, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 49: flexo circum cava tempora cornu, Ov. M. 7, 313; 10, 116; 11, 159: tum Salii ad cantus incensa altaria circum adsunt, Verg. A. 8, 285: varios hic flumina circum Fundit humus flores, on the borders of the rivulets, id. E. 9, 40: urgeris turbā circum te stante, Hor. S. 1, 3, 135; cf. id. C. 2, 16, 33: circum renidentes Lares, id. Epod. 2, 66; Verg. G. 2, 484; cf. Luc. 2, 557: illi indignantes Circum claustra fremunt, Verg. A. 1, 56: oras et litora circum errantem, id. ib. 3, 75.
    3. C. Circum very freq. expresses, not a relative motion around a given central point, but an absol. circular movement, in which several objects named form separate points of a periphery, in, into, among … around, to … around, etc.: te adloquor, Quae circum vicinos vages, Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 14: ego Arpini volo esse pridie Cal., deinde circum villulas nostras errare, not round about our villas, but in our villas around, Cic. Att. 8, 9, 3; cf Hor. S. 1, 6, 58: tum Naevius pueros circum amicos dimittit, to friends around, Cic. Quint. 6, 25; Suet. Ner. 47: cum praetorem circum omnia fora sectaretur, Cic. Verr 2, 2, 70, § 169: Apronius ducebat eos circum civitates, id. ib. 2, 3, 26, § 65: ille circum hospites cursabat, id. ib. 2, 4, 19, § 41: lenonem quondam Lentuli concursare circum tabernas, id. Cat. 4, 8, 17: dimissis circum municipia litteris, Caes. B. C. 3, 22: circum oram maritimam misit, ut, etc., Liv. 29, 24, 9: legatio sub idem tempus in Asiam et circum insulas missa, id. 42, 45, 1; Suet. Aug. 64; id. Caes. 41; id. Calig. 28; 41; Hor. S. 2, 3, 281; id. Ep 1, 1, 49: et te circum omnes alias irata puellas Differet, to or among all the other maidens around, Prop. 1, 4, 21
    4. D. With the prevailing idea of neighborhood, vicinity, in the environs of, in the vicinity of, at, near: circum haec loca commorabor, Cic. Att. 3, 17, 2; Pompei ib. 8, 12, C, 1 exercitu in foro et in omnibus templis, quae circum forum sunt, conlocato, Cic. Opt. Gen. 4, 10: urbes, quae circum Capuam sunt, id. Agr. 1, 7, 20: cum tot essent circum hastam illam, id. Phil. 2, 26, 64 Wernsd. N. cr.: non succurrit tibi, quamdiu circum Bactra haereas? Curt. 7, 8, 21, Tac. A. 4, 74.
    5. E. Of persons who surround one (as attendants, friends, etc.); in Gr.περι or ἀμφί τινα: paucae, quae circum illam essent, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 33; Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4: omnium flagitiorum atque facinorum circum se tamquam stipatorum catervas habebat, Sall. C. 14, 1; cf. id. ib. 26, 4: Hectora circum, Verg. A. 6, 166.
      Circum pedes for ad pedes, of servants in attendance, is rare, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 36, § 92; v ad, I. D. 3. b.—
      Note: Circum is sometimes placed after its subst., Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Müll., Lucr 1, 937; 4, 220; 6, 427; Cic. N. D. 2, 41, 105; Verg. E. 8, 12; 8, 74; 9, 40; id. A. 1, 32; 2, 515; 2, 564; 3, 75: 6, 166; 6, 329; 9, 440; Tib. 1, 1, 23; 1, 5, 51; Stat. Th. 3, 395.
  3. III. In composition the m remains unchanged before consonants; before vowels it was, acc. to Prisc. p. 567 P., and Cassiod. p. 2294 ib., written in like manner, but (except before j and v) not pronounced. Yet in the best MSS. we find the orthography circuitio, circuitus, and even circueo together with circumeo; cf. Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 736 sq.
    Signif.,
        1. a. Acc. to II. A.: circumcido, circumcludo, circumculco, circumfluo, circumfodio, circumfundo, etc.
        2. b. Acc. to II. B.: circumcolo, circumflecto, circumjaceo, circumicio.
        3. c. Acc. to II. C.: circumcellio, circumcurso, circumduco, circumfero, circumforaneus.
          In many compounds, circum has sometimes one and sometimes another signif., as in circumdo, circumeo, circumsisto, etc.; v. h. vv.—
          Note: With verbs compounded with circum, this preposition is never repeated before the following object; e. g. circumcursare circum aliquid and similar phrases are not found.

circumactĭo, ōnis, f. [circumago].

  1. I. Lit., a turning around, revolving (very rare): solis, Vitr. 9, 9, 15; Mart. Cap. 8, § 885.
  2. * II. Trop., of discourse, a turning, turn, compass, Gell. 17, 20, 4.

1. circumactus, a, um, Part. and P. a., from circumago, q. v. fin.

2. circumactus, ūs, m. [circumago], a moving or turning round (post-Aug.): assiduus caeli, Sen. Q. N. 7, 2, 2; Censor. de Die Nat. 23: corporis, Plin. 8, 30, 44, § 105; 8, 50, 76, § 201: rotarum, id. 28, 9, 37, § 141.

circum-aggĕro, no perf., ātum, 1, v. a., to heap up around (very rare): terram, Col. 5, 12, 3: fimo radices, Plin. 19, 5, 23, § 68.

circum-ăgo, ēgi, actum, 3, v. a.

  1. I. To drive or turn in a circle, turn round (most freq. since the Aug. per.; not in Cic. or Quint.): impera suovetaurilia circumagi, Cato, R. R. 141, 1.
    And with two acc. (on account of circum): terram fundumque meum suovetaurilia circumagi jussi, Cato, R. R. 141, § 2: (annus) qui solstitiali circumagitur orbe, Liv. 1, 19, 6: chamaeleonis oculos ipsos circumagi totos tradunt, Plin. 11, 37, 55, § 152.
    Act. in mid. sense (very rare): Aegeum pelagus summotas terras hinc ad promunturium, quod Sunium vocatur, magno ambitu mollique circumagit, rolls around, surrounds, Mel. 2, 2, 8.
      1. 2. To drive around, produce by going around: pinctis bobusaratro circumagebant sulcum, Varr. L. L. 5, § 143 Müll.
        Hence,
    1. B. T. t., to manumit a slave by turning him round. since the slave, in such a case, was taken by his master with the right hand, and turned around in a circle (cf. vertigo, Casaub. Pers. 5, 75 sq., and Dict. of Antiq.); fig.: qui se illi (philosophiae) subjecit et tradidit, statim circumagitur: hoc enim ipsum philosophiae servire libertas est, Sen. Ep. 8, 6.
    2. C. Trop.
      1. 1. Of time, with se, or more freq. in pass, to pass away, to be spent (so most freq. in temp. perf. and in Liv.): in ipso conatu rerum circumegit se annus, Liv. 9, 18, 14: sed prius se aestas circumegit, quam, etc., id. 23, 39, 4: prius circumactus est annus, quam, etc., id. 6, 38, 1: circumactis decem et octo mensibus, id. 9, 33, 3; 6, 1, 4; 26, 40, 1; 27, 30, 11; 44, 36, 1; Plin. 7, 16, 17, § 76; and in tmesis: circum tribus actis annis, Lucr. 5, 881.
        In temp. pres.: annus, qui solstitiali circumagitur orbe, Liv. 1, 19, 6: nobis in apparatu ipso annus circumagitur, id. 24, 8, 8.
      2. 2. Of the vicissitudes of fortune, etc.: cum videamus tot varietates tam volubili orbe circumagi, Plin. Ep. 4, 24, 6.
  2. II. To turn, turn about, wheel around: equos frenis, Liv. 1, 14, 9; 8, 7, 10; 10, 11, 1; Curt. 3, 11, 14 sq.: collum in aversam se, Plin. 11, 47, 107, § 256: corpora, Tac. H. 4, 29: se ad dissonos clamores, Liv. 4, 28, 2: circumagitur, cum venit, imago (in speculis), Lucr. 4, 316 (340): circumagente se vento, Liv. 37, 16, 4: aciem, id. 42, 64, 5: signa, id. 10, 36, 9; 6, 24, 7; Curt. 4, 6, 14: ut qui (milites) ultimi stabantverti tamen et in frontem circumagi possent, id. 4, 13, 32: se, to turn about, Plin. 6, 31, 36, § 199; 16, 41, 80, § 220: legiones, to lead back, Flor. 3, 21, 6.
    Hence, prov.: circumagetur hic orbis, the tide will turn, Liv. 42, 42, 6; cf.’ praecipua cenationum rotunda, quae perpetuo diebus ac noctibus vice mundi circumageretur, Suet. Ner. 31.
      1. 2. Esp., to agitate, disturb: verna (mala) stomacho inutilia sunt, alvom, vesicam circumagunt, Plin. 23, 6, 54, § 100.
    1. B. Trop.: hic paululum circumacta fortuna est, changes, is changed, Flor. 2, 2, 22: sed unā voce, quā Quirites eos pro militibus appellarat, tam facile circumegit et flexit, Suet. Caes. 70: quo te circumagas? whither will you now turn? Juv. 9, 81: universum prope humanum genus circumegit in se, brought over to his side, Plin. 26, 3, 7, § 13.
  3. III. (Acc. to circum, II. C.) To run or drive about, proceed from one place to another: (milites) huc illuc clamoribus hostium circumagi, Tac. H, 3, 73: nil opus est te Circumagi, i. e. that you wander about with me, * Hor. S. 1, 9, 17.
    1. B. Trop.: non pendere ex alterius vultu ac nutu, nec alieni momentis animi circumagi, Liv. 39, 5, 3: rumoribus vulgi circumagi, id. 44, 34, 4; 26, 8, 3.
  4. IV. Aliquem aliquā re = circumdare, to surround with something: fratrem Saturnum muro, Lact. 1, 14.
    Hence, circumactus, a, um, P. a., bent around, curved (perh. only in the two Plin.): in orbem circumactus, Plin. 9, 33, 52, § 102; 15, 14, 15, § 51; 16, 34, 62, § 146: sensim circumactis curvatisque litoribus, Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 12.

* circum-ambŭlo, āre, v. a., to walk around: omnes glebas, Dig. 41, 2, 3, § 1.

circum-ămictus, a, um, adj. [amicio], enveloped, invested (eccl. Lat.), Vulg. Apoc. 4, 4.

circum-ăro, āre, v. a., to plough around, Liv. 2, 10, 12; Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 9.

circum-caesūra, or separate, cir-cum caesūra, ae, f., the external contour or outline ( = circumscriptio), Lucr. 3, 220; 4, 645; Arn. 3, p. 107.

circum-calco (in MSS. also cir-cumculco), āre, v. a., to tread or trample upon all around: codicem, Col. 5, 6, 21; id. 5, 6, 21, § 8: terminos, Sicul. Flac. p. 6.

Circumcellĭo, ōnis, m. [cella].

  1. I. A class of monks, who, without fixed abode, wandered about from cell to cell, Aug. in Psa. 132.
  2. II. A class of heretics, Hier. Ep. 22, 15; Isid. Orig. 8, 5, 53.

circumcīdānĕus, a, um, adj. [circumcīdo], prop., of or from cutting or paring around: mustum, wine pressed out after the ordinary pressing, when the husks and stems remaining in the press had been cut around, Cato, R. R. 23, 4; cf. Plin. 14, 20, 25, § 124 sq.; Col. 12, 36; the same, called mustum circumcisicium or circumcisitum, Varr. R. R. 1, 54, 3.

circum-cīdo, cīdi, cīsum, 3, v. a. [caedo],

  1. I. to cut around, cut, clip, trim (orig. in agriculture; syn.: amputo, reseco): ars agricolarum, quae circumcidat, amputet, erigat, etc., Cic. Fin. 5, 14, 39: gemmam acuto scalpello circumciditoejusdem spatii corticem circumcidito, Col. Arb. 26, 8; 12, 36: latera scrobis, id. 5, 9, 9: arbores ad medullam, Plin. 16, 39, 74, § 191: aciem, Lucr. 3, 412: caespitem gladiis, Caes. B. G. 5, 42: ungues, Cels. 7, 26, 2: volnus, Plin. 25, 5, 25, § 61: genitalia (Judaeorum), to circumcise, Tac. H. 5, 5; cf. Petr. 102, 14; Gell. 17, 15, 7; Cels. 7, 25 init.
  2. II. Trop., to cut off, shorten, diminish, abridge, circumscribe (very freq. in prose; syn.: amputo, reseco, demo, aufero): testatur saepe Chrysippus, tres solas esse sententias, quae defendi possint, de finibus bonorum: circumcidit et amputat multitudinem, Cic. Ac. 2, 45, 138; so with amputo, id. de Or. 1, 15, 65; id. Fin. 1, 13, 44: sumptus circumcisi aut sublati, Liv. 32, 27, 4; so, impensam funeri, Phaedr. 4, 19, 25: circumcisā omni negotiosā actione, Cels. 4, 25: circumcidendum vinum est in totum annum, to be abstained from, id. 4, 20.
    Of discourse, to lop or cut off, to remove: circumcisis rebus, quae non arbitror pertinere ad agriculturam, Varr. R. R. 1, 1, 11: circumcidat, si quid redundabit, Quint. 10, 2, 28; 4, 2, 42 Spald.: (oratio) rotunda et undique circumcisa, id. 8, 5, 27; 10, 1, 104: ineptas quaestiones, Sen. Contr. 2, 11.
    Hence, cir-cumcīsus, a, um, P. a., lit. cut off around, cut off; hence,
    1. A. Of localities = abscisus, abruptus, cut off from connection with the region around, steep, precipitous, inaccessible: saxum, Cic. Rep. 2, 6, 11: Henna ab omni aditu circumcisa atque directa, id. Verr. 2, 4, 48, § 107: collis ex omni parte circumcisus, Caes. B. G. 7, 36.
    2. B. Trop., abridged, short, brief (so prob. not before the Aug. per.): quid enim tam circumcisum, tam breve, quam hominis vita longissima? Plin. Ep. 3, 7, 11.
      Of discourse: circumcisae orationes et breves, Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 4; cf. supra, Quint. 8, 5, 27.
      Adv.: circumcīsē, briefly: rem ante oculos ponere circumcise atque velociter, Quint. 8, 3, 81; * Suet. Rhet. 6; Macr. 5, 1.

circum-cingo, ĕre, v. a., to enclose around, surround: quā Mons Apenninus regiones Italiae Etruriaeque circumcingit, Vitr. 2, 6, 5: eum zonā gloriae, Vulg. Ecclus. 45, 9: PORTICVS, Inscr. Orell. 4043.
In part. pres., Cels. 7, 15: telis circumcingentibus, Sil. 10, 2.

circum-circā, adv., a strengthened circum or circa, all around (cf. the Heb. [??] [??], Vulg. Ezech. 40, 5; the Gr. ἀμφὶ τερί; and our round about—very rare, perh. only in the foll. exs.; and acc. to Serg. ap. Don. p. 1855 P. also in Cato): ubi erat haec defossa, occoepit scalpturire ibi ungulis circumcirca, * Plaut. Aul. 3, 4, 9: coepi regiones circumcirca prospicere, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4; Auct. B. Hisp. 41; App. M. 11, p. 258, 23; cf. Prisc. p. 989 sq. P.; Serg. ap. Don. 1. 1.; Hand, Turs. II. p. 73.

circumcirco, āre, v. n., = circumeo, to go round: regiones, Amm. 31, 2, 23 Eyssenh.; dub. (al. circumcurrunt).

circumcīsē, adv., v. circumcido, P. a. fin.

circumcīsicius or -tius, v. circumcidaneus.

circumcīsĭo, ōnis, f. [circumcido], a cutting around, circumcision, physical and moral (only in eccl. Lat.): carnis, cordis, spiritūs, Lact. 4, 17, 1 sqq.; Tert. adv. Jud. 2; 3 et saep.

* circumcīsōrĭum, ii, n. [circumcido], an instrument for cutting around, Veg. Vet. 1, 26, 2; cf. id. ib. 2, 28, 31.

* circumcīsūra, ae, f. [circumcido], a cutting around: arborum, Plin. 16, 40, 79, § 219.

circumcīsus, a, um, v. circumcido, P. a.

circum-clāmo, āre, v. a., to roar around, poet. of the raging waves: ora circumclamata procellis, Sid. Carm. 2, 506.

circum-claudo, ĕre, 3, v. a. (postclass. collat. form of circumcludo), to shut in: farinā circumclaudendus locus, Cael. Aur. Tard. 4, 7, 103.

circum-clūdo, si, sum, 3, v. a. [claudo],

  1. I. to shut in, enclose on every side (in good class. prose): ne duobus circumcluderetur exercitibus, Caes. B. C. 3, 30; cf. * Suet. Tib. 20; Auct. B. Hisp. 6: cornua ab labris argento, to surround with a rim of silver, Caes. B. G. 6, 28 fin.; Plin. 18, 35, 78, § 344: SEPVLCRVM MACERIIS, Inscr. Orell. 4349.
  2. II. Trop.: L. Catilina consiliis, laboribus, periculis meis circumclusus ac debilitatus, hemmed in, Cic. Cat. 2, 7, 14: aliquem suis praesidiis, suā diligentiā, id. ib. 1, 3, 7; Cod. Just. 6, 51, 1 pr.

* circumcŏla, ae, comm. [circumcolo], dwelling around: gentes, Tert. adv. Gnost. 3 fin.

circum-cŏlo, ĕre, v. a., to dwell round about or near: sinum maris, Liv. 5, 33, 10: paludem, id. 31, 41, 4; absol., Dig. 43, 12, 1; cf. ib. 43, 13, 1: Amazones circumcolunt Tanain, Amm. 22, 8, 27: insulam, id. 22, 8, 43.

circum-cordĭālis, e, adj., around the heart (post-class.): calor, Tert. Anim. 43: sanguis, id. ib. 15.

circumculco, āre, v. circumcalco.

circum-cŭmŭlo, āre, 1, v. a., to heap or pile up around: exanimes circumcumulantur acervi, Stat. Th. 10, 655.

circum-curro, ĕre, v. n.,

  1. I. to run round or about (not ante-Aug.), Vitr. 4, 6: circumcurrens linea, the periphery, Quint. 1, 10, 41.
  2. * II. Trop.: eam artem (rhetoricen) circumcurrentem vocaverunt. quod in omni materiā diceret, universal, Quint. 2, 21, 7.

circumcursĭo, ōnis, f. [circumcurro], a running around (late Lat.), App. M. 9, p. 222, 41.

circum-curso, āre, v. freq. a. and n., to run round about, to run about in, at, or near something (ante- and post-class.; in Cic. Fam. 7, 1, 5, more recent editt. read concursare); act.: omnia, * Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 4: aliquam hinc illinc, * Cat. 68, 133.
Absol.: hac illac, * Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 1: atria versari et circumcursare columnaeuti pueris videantur, Lucr. 4, 400: per omnes portas, Lact. 6, 12 (in paraphr. of Cic.).

circumdătĭo, ōnis, f. [circumdo], the putting around: auri, Vulg. 1 Pet. 3, 3.

circum-do, dĕdi, dătum, dăre, v. a., lit. to put, set, or place around, i. e. both to wrap around (e. g. a mantle). and also to enclose (e. g. a town with a wall; syn.: cingo, vestio, saepio, circumvallo al.), with a twofold construction (cf. Zumpt, Gr. § 418).

  1. I. Aliquid (alicui rei), to place something around something, to put, set around, etc. (class. in prose and poetry).
          1. (α) With dat.: aër omnibus est rebus circumdatus appositusque, Lucr. 6, 1035: moenibus subjectos prope jam ignes circumdatosque restinximus, Cic. Cat. 3, 1, 2: circumdare fossam latam cubiculari lecto, id. Tusc. 5, 20, 59: satellites armatos contioni, Liv. 34, 27, 5: hinc patre hinc Catulo lateri circumdatis, Romam rediit, i. e. one on each side, id. 30, 19, 9; 3, 28, 2: milites sibi, Tac. A. 13, 25: arma umeris, Verg. A. 2, 510: licia tibi, id. E. 8, 74: vincula collo, Ov. M. 1, 631: bracchia collo, id. ib. 9, 459; 9, 605; 6, 479; and in tmesis: collo dare bracchia circum, Verg. A. 6, 700 (cf. the simplex: bracchia cervici dare, Hor. C. 3, 9, 3): lectis aulaea purpura, Curt. 9, 7, 15: cum maxime in hostiam itineri nostro circumdatam intuens, i. e. divided, and part placed on each side of the way, Liv. 40, 13, 4.
          2. (β) Without a dat.: caedere januam saxis, ligna et sarmenta circumdare ignemque subicere coeperunt, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 27, § 69; 2, 1, 31, § 80: ignes, id. Pis. 38, 93: custodias, id. Cat. 4, 4, 8: armata circumdatur Romana legio, Liv. 1, 28, 3: exercitu circumdato summā vi Cirtam irrumpere nititur, Sall. J. 25, 9: circumdatae stationes, Tac. A. 1, 50: murus circumdatus, Caes. B. G. 1, 38: turris toto opere circumdedit, id. ib. 7, 72: circumdato vallo, Curt. 3, 2, 2: lauream (sc. capiti), Suet. Vit. 9.
            Subst.: circumdăti, ōrum, m., those around, the surrounding soldiers: circumdatos Antonius adloquitur, Tac. H. 3, 63.
            With an abl. loci: toto oppido munitiones, Hirt. B. G. 8, 34 fin.: equites cornibus, Liv. 33, 18, 9; and without dat., Tac. A. 14, 53.
            With two accs.: circumdare terram radices, Cato, R. R. 114; and per tmesin, id. ib. 157.
    1. B. Trop. (most freq. in Tac.): cancelli, quos mihi ipse circumdedi, Cic. Quint. 10, 36: nescio an majora vincula majoresque necessitates vobis quam captivis vestris fortuna circumdederit, Liv. 21, 43, 3: egregiam famam paci circumdedit, i. e. conferred, imparted, Tac. Agr. 20; cf.: principatus inanem ei famam, id. H. 4, 11; id. Or. 37: principi ministeria, id. H. 2, 59; id. A. 14, 15.
      In a Greek construction: infula virgineos circumdata comptus, encompassing, Lucr. 1, 88; Tac. H. 4, 45; id. A. 16, 25.
  2. II. Aliquem or aliquid (aliquā re), to surround some person or thing (with something), to encompass, enclose, encircle with.
    1. A. Lit.
      1. 1. In gen.: animum (deus) circumdedit corpore et vestivit extrinsecus, Cic. Univ. 6 fin.; cf.: aether corpore concreto circumdatus undique, Lucr. 5, 469: portum moenibus, Nep. Them. 6, 1: regio insulis circumdata, Cic. Fl. 12, 27: villam statione, Tac. A. 14, 8: suam domum spatio, id. G. 16: collis operibus, id. A. 6, 41: vallo castra, id. H. 4, 57: Othonem vexillis, id. ib. 1, 36: canibus saltus, Verg. E. 10, 57: circumdato me bracchiis: meum collum circumplecte, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 106: collum filo, Cat. 64, 377: (aurum) circumdatum argento, Cic. Div. 2, 65, 134: furvis circumdatus alis Somnus, * Tib. 2, 1, 89: ad talos stola demissa et circumdata palla, Hor. S. 1, 2, 99: circumdedit se zonā, Suet. Vit. 16: circumdata corpus amictu, Ov. M. 4, 313; cf. id. ib. 3, 666: tempora vittis, id. ib. 13, 643: Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo, Verg. A. 4, 137.
      2. 2. Esp. of a hostile surrounding, to surround, encompass, invest, besiege, etc.: oppidum vallo et fossā, Cic. Fam. 15, 4, 10: oppidum quinis castris, Caes. B. C. 3, 9: cum legatimultitudine domum ejus circumdedissent, Nep. Hann. 12, 4: vallo atque fossā moenia circumdat, Sall. J. 23, 1: oppidum coronā, Liv. 4, 47, 5: quos (hostes) primo Camillus vallo circumdare est adortus, id. 6, 8, 9: fossā valloque urbem, id. 25, 22, 8: fossā duplicique vallo circumdatā urbe, id. 28, 3, 5: hostes exercitu toto, Curt. 3, 8, 4.
    2. B. Trop.: omni autem totam figuram mundi levitate circumdedit, Cic. Univ. 6 init.: exiguis quibusdam finibus oratoris munus circumdedisti, have confined, circumscribed, id. de Or. 1, 62, 264; cf.: minus octoginta annis circumdatum aevum, Vell. 1, 17, 2: pueritiam robore, Tac. A. 12, 25: fraude, Sil. 7, 134; cf. id. 12, 477: monstrorum novitate, Quint. Decl. 18, 1.

* circum-dŏlĕo, ēre, v. n., to suffer on every side: spiratio circumdolens; acc. to Forcellini: circum, seu undique, vel ab omni parte angens, i.e. very painful, Cael. Aur. Acut. 2, 14, 92.

circum-dŏlo, āre, v. a.,

  1. I. to hew off around, Plin. 16, 32, 57, § 133.
  2. II. Trop.: qui, tamquam bonus animi faber, vitia nostra circumdolat, Ambros. in Luc. 3, 2.

circum-dūco, xi, ctum, 3, v. a. (imper. circumduce, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 83; id. Most. 3, 2, 159; id. Mil. 2, 2, 66), to lead or draw around (class.; esp. freq. in milit. lang.; in Cic. perh. only once).

  1. I. Prop.: circumduce exercitum, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 66; cf. Liv. 1, 27, 8; 8, 13, 8: miles aliquo circumducitur, Plaut. Truc. 4, 4, 21: quattuor cohortibus longiore itinere circumductis, Caes. B. G. 3, 26: alas ad latus Samnitium, Liv. 10, 29, 9: agmen per invia circa, etc., id. 21, 36, 4: pars devio saltu circumducta, id. 41, 19, 8; cf. id. 36, 24, 8: captos Vitellii exploratores circumductos, ut robora exercitus noscerent, remittendo, Tac. H. 3, 54: aliquem per totam civitatem, Petr. 141.
    Also like the simple verb absol.: praeter castra hostium circumducit, marches around, avoids, Liv. 34, 14, 1: aliquem vicatim, Suet. Calig. 35: per coetus epulantium, id. ib. 32: quosdam per organa hydraulica, id. Ner. 41.
    With two accs.: eho istum, puer, circumduce hasce aedis et conclavia, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 159: quos Pompeiusomnia sua praesidia circumduxit atque ostentavit, Caes. B. C. 3, 61 Kraner ad loc.; cf. Verg. A. 6, 517 sq.
    And in tmesis: circum in quaestus ducere Asinum, Phaedr. 4, 1, 4.
    1. B. Of things: Casilinum coloniam deduxisti, ut vexillum tolleres, ut aratrum circumduceres (as usu. in founding a new city; v. aratrum), * Cic. Phil. 2, 40, 102; cf.: oppida, quae prius erant circumducta aratro, Varr. L. L. 5, § 143 Müll.: bracchium (v. bracchium), Auct. B. Hisp. 6; Suet. Claud. 20: flumen Dubis, ut circino circumductum, paene totum oppidum cingit, Caes. B. G. 1, 38: utro modo vero id circumductum est (of a round hole), Cels. 8, 3, 16: litteras subicere et circumducere, i. e. when a line is filled, to place the remaining letters of a word below the line, and draw circular marks around them, to indicate that they belong above, Suet. Aug. 87 fin.; cf. Serv. ad Verg. A. 3, 204 and 226: umbra hominis lineis circumducta, i.e. represented by outlines, sketched, Plin. 35, 3, 5, § 15.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. In conversat. language, aliquem aliqua re or absol., to deceive, cheat, impose upon (syn.: circumvenio, decipio, fraudo, fallo): aliquem argento, Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 39; 1, 5, 16: quadrigentis Philippis filius me et Chrusalus circumduxerunt, id. Bacch. 5, 2, 64; cf. id. ib. 2, 3, 77: quā me potes, circumduce, aufer, id. As. 1, 1, 84; id. Poen. 5, 5, 8; 5, 2, 16; id. Ps. 1, 5, 115; Dig. 42, 33, 1 al.
    2. B. Of discourse, to use circumlocution, to prolong: cum sensus unus longiore ambitu circumducitur, Quint. 9, 4, 124; cf. id. 10, 2, 17.
    3. C. In prosody, to speak drawlingly, to drawl out; only in Quint. 11, 3, 172; 12, 10, 33; 1, 5, 23 Spald. and Zumpt.
    4. D. In jurid. Lat., to draw lines around a law, i. e. to cancel, annul, abrogate (cf. cancello, II., and circumscribo, II. D.), Dig. 5, 1, 73; 40, 12, 27; 49, 1, 22.

circumductĭo, ōnis, f. [circumduco].

  1. I. A leading or conducting around: aquarum, Vitr. 8, 6, 5 sq.: sphaerae, the circumference, Hyg. Astr. 1, 2; of a person, Cod. Th. 4, 8, 1.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. * A. A cheating, defrauding: argenti, Plaut. Capt. Caterv. 3.
    2. B. The expansion of a thought, a period, only in Quint. 11, 3, 39; 9, 4, 118.

circumductor, ōris, m. [circumduco], one who leads about, converts another, Tert. adv. Val. 10.

* circumductum, i, n. [circumduco, II. B.]; in rhet., a period, Quint. 9, 4, 22.

1. circumductus, a, um, Part., from circumduco.

2. circumductus, ūs, m. [circumduco].

  1. I. The circumference of a figure, Quint. 1, 10, 43.
  2. * II. Motion in a circle, a revolution: orbium, Macr. Somn. Scip. 2, 1, 5.

circŭm-ĕo or circŭĕŏ (v. circum, III.; Neue, Formenl. 2, p. 736 sq.), īvi or ii, circuĭtum, īre (inf. pass. circumirier, Plaut. Curc. 3, 81), v. n. and a.

  1. I. Prop., to go around, travel or march around, etc. (class.): sparsis Medea capillis Bacchantum ritu flagrantes circuit aras, Ov. M. 7, 258: per hortum circuit, makes a circuit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 152; cf. Nep. Eum. 9, 2: si rectum limitem rupti torrentibus pontes inciderint, circumire cogemur, Quint. 2, 13, 16: an quasi mare omnes circumimus insulas? i. e. from one to another (cf. circum, II. C.), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 6: alvearia, Col. 9, 9: fines equis, id. 1, 3: praedia, Cic. Caecin. 32, 94: haec una opera circuit per familias, Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 53: qui imperavit ei, ut omnes fores aedificii circumiret, Nep. Hann. 12, 4: urbem, Liv. 23, 25, 2: Marcio et Atilio Epirus, Aetolia et Thessalia circumeundae assignanturLentuli circumeuntes Peloponnesi oppida, etc., id. 42, 37, 3 and 7: haud ignarus erat circuitam ab Romanis eam (Hispaniam) legatis, id. 21, 22, 1: Civilis avia Belgarum circumibat, Tac. H. 4, 70: manibus nexis trunci modum, to surround, Ov. M. 8, 748: non potuere uno anno circumirier, Plaut. Curc. 3, 81: proximis insulis circuitis, Suet. Aug. 98: equites circumitis hostium castris Crasso renuntiaverunt, Caes. B. G. 3, 25: circuitis templis, Suet. Ner. 19 al.: at pater omnipotens ingentia moenia caeli Circuit, Ov. M. 2, 402: circueunt unum Phineus et mille secuti Phinea, surround, id. ib. 5, 157 (cf. circum, II. E.): Leucada continuam veteres habuere coloni; nunc freta circumeunt, flow around it, id. ib. 15, 290: more lupi oves, id. P. 1, 2, 20: metam ferventi rotā, avoids, id. A. A. 3, 396.
    1. B. Esp.
      1. 1. To surround, encircle, enclose, encompass.
          1. (α) Esp. in milit. lang.: totam urbem muro turribusque circumiri posse, Caes. B. C. 2, 16: aciem, sinistrum cornu, id. ib. 3, 93 sq.: multitudine circumiri, Nep. Them. 3, 2; id. Dat. 7, 3; Liv. 41, 26, 4; Gall. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 30, 4: ab iisdem acies Pompeiana a sinistrā parte erat circumita, Caes. B. C. 3, 94.
          2. (β) In gen., absol.: quae circumibit linea, ejusdem spatii erit, cujus ea quae centum continet, Quint. 1, 10, 44.
            With acc.: extremas oleis pacalibus oras (Pallas), Ov. M. 6, 101: cujus non hederae circumiere caput, Prop. 2 (3), 5, 26.
      2. 2. To go from one to another, soliciting, canvassing, admonishing, etc., qs. to go the rounds (stronger than ambire, which signif. to go to this one and that; most freq. after the Aug. per.; in Cic. perh. only once, in his epistt.): itaque prenso amicos, supplico, ambio domos stationesque circumeo, Plin. Ep. 2, 9, 5: (Antonium) circumire veteranos, ut acta Caesaris sancirent, Cic. Att. 14, 21, 2; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 11, 2: Quinctilius circumire aciem Curionis atque obsecrare milites coepit, Caes. B. C. 2, 28: sed ipse Romulus circumibat docebatque, Liv. 1, 9, 14; 1, 47, 7; 3, 47, 2: ille Persarum tabernacula circumire, hortari, Curt. 5, 9, 17; Tac. A. 2, 29; Plin. Pan. 69, 2; Suet. Aug. 56; id. Tib. 11: rex agmen circuibat pedes, Curt. 7, 3, 17; cf.: cui orbem terrarum circumire non erit longum meā causā, Plin. Ep. 7, 16, 4; 2, 9, 5.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. To surround, enclose: totius belli fluctibus circumiri, Cic. Phil. 18, 9, 20: ne superante numero et peritiā locorum circumiretur, Tac. Agr. 25 fin.; Stat. S. 4, 4, 26.
    2. B. Like our circumvent, to deceive, impose upon, cheat, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 109: facinus indignum, Sic circumiri, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 9: puerum arte dolosā, Mart. 8, 59, 14.
    3. C. Of discourse, to express by circumlocution (postAug.): res plurimae carent appellationibus, ut eas necesse sit transferre aut circumire, Quint. 12, 10, 34; 8, prooem. § 24 Spald.; 8, 2, 17: Vespasiani nomen suspensi et vitabundi circumibant, went around, avoided mentioning it, Tac. H. 3, 37.

* circŭm-ĕquĭto, āre, v. a., to ride round: moenia, Liv. 10, 34, 7.

circŭm-erro, āre, v. n., to wander round, stroll about: neque turba lateri circumerrat, Sen. Contr. 2, 9, 7: tempora (of the revolution of Saturn in his orbit), to pass through, App. de Mundo, p. 71, 11.

* circum-farcĭo, no perf., fartus, 4, v. a., to fill up all around, to stuff, Plin. 17, 13, 21, § 98.

circumfĕrentĭa, ae, f. [circumfero], a circumference (post-class.): sedilium, App. Flor. 18, p. 359; Mart. Cap. 8, § 817; Front. Expos. Form. p. 33 Goes.

circum-fĕro, tŭli, lātum, ferre, v. a. to bear round, or, in gen., to move or carry round or about (class. in prose and poetry).

  1. I. Prop.: age circumfer mulsum, pass around, Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 45: satiatis vino ciboque poculumcircumferetur, Liv. 26, 13, 18: circumferri vinum largius jubet, Curt. 7, 4, 7: hisce (poculis) etiam nunc in publico convivio potio circumfertur, Varr. L. L. 5, § 122 Müll.: sanguinem in pateris, Sall. C. 22, 1; Flor. 4, 1, 4 Duker: circa ea omnia templa Philippum infestos circumtulisse ignes, Liv. 31, 30, 7: reliquias cenae, Suet. Galb. 22: lyram in conviviis, Quint. 1, 10, 19: codicem, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 104: filium suis manibus, Quint. 2, 15, 8: diuque arma circumferens alia tela clipeo excipiebat, corpore alia vitabat, Curt. 6, 1, 4: ter heros Immanem circumfert tegmine silvam, Verg. A. 10, 887: pavimenta in expeditionibus, Suet. Caes. 46: ubique pellem vituli marini, id. Aug. 90.
    Of books carried about for sale, Quint. 2, 13, 15; 2, 15, 4 al.: huc atque huc acies circumtulit, Verg. A. 12, 558; cf. oculos, to cast around, Ov. M. 6, 169; 15, 674; Liv. 2, 10, 8; 5, 41, 4; Curt. 6, 11, 36; Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 2: vultus, Ov. M. 3, 241; Suet. Caes. 85.
    Mid.: sol ut circumferatur, revolve, Cic. de Or. 3, 45, 178; cf.: linea circumferens, the circumference, Gromat. Vet. 5, 10: nec mirari hominem mercede conductumad nutum licentium circumferri, Curt. 5, 12, 2.
  2. II. Trop. (mostly in the poets and histt.), to spread around: bellum, Liv. 9, 41, 6; 9, 45, 17; 10, 17, 2; 28, 3, 1; Tac. A. 13, 37 (for which: spargere bellum, id. ib. 3, 21): belli umbram, Sil. 15, 316: et circumferentem arma Scipionem omnibus finitimis raptim perdomitis ipsam Carthaginem repente adgressurum credebant, Liv. 30, 9, 3; Flor. 1, pr. 2; 3, 12, 1: signa, id. 3, 5, 29: incendia et caedes et terrorem, Tac. A. 2, 52; cf.: terrorem nominis sui late, Flor. 2, 2, 21: Caesar circumferens terrarum orbi praesentia pacis suae bona, Vell. 2, 92, 2; Plin. Pan. 7, 5.
    1. B. Of a narrative or discourse, to publish abroad, proclaim, divulge, disseminate among the people, report (prob. nct ante-Aug.): ut circumferetur M. Philippi factum atque dictum, Col. 8, 16, 3; Plin. Ep. 3, 11, 1; 6, 8, 2: illud quidem ingens fama, haec nulla circumfert, id. ib. 3, 16, 13.
      With acc. and inf.: novi aliquam, quae se circumferat esse Corinnam, Ov. Am. 2, 17, 29.
      Hence, of writings: circumferri, to be widely circulated, Quint. 2, 13, 15; 2, 15, 4.
    2. C. In the lang. of religion, to lustrate, purify any one by carrying around him consecrated objects (torches, offerings, etc.) = lustrare, purgare: quaeso quin tu istanc jubes Pro cerritā circumferri? Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 144: aliquem pro larvato, id. Fragm. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 6, 229: tum ferto omnia sum circumlatus, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 27: idem ter socios purā circumtulit undā, carried around pure water, i. e. for purification (poet. constr. for undam circum socios), Verg. A. 6, 229 Serv. and Wagn.; Veg. 3, 74.
    3. * D. In rhetoric: oratio deducta et circumlata, expanded, drawn out into periods, Quint. 4, 1, 60 Spald.

circum-fīgo, ĕre, v. a., to fix or fasten round (very rare): columellam cuneis, Cato, R. R. 20, 1: duo scelesti circumfiguntur Christo, Tert. adv. Marc. 4, 42.

* circum-fingo, ĕre, v. a., to form around: carnem alicui, Tert. Anim. 23.

* circum-fīnĭo, īre, v. a., to complete a circle, to bring to an end: annum, Sol. 3.

* circum-fīrmo, āre, v. a., to fasten round: vitem, Col. 4, 17, 7.

circum-flagro, āre, v. n., to blaze or scorch all around: per immensum circumflagrantibus Austris, Avien. Arat. 274.

circum-flecto, xi, xum, 3, v. a.,

  1. I. to bend or turn about (Verg. and post-class. writers); prop. of the charioteer in the circus; hence, transf.’ longos cursus, Verg. A. 5, 131; 3, 430.
  2. II. Trop.: circumflexa saecula, returning upon themselves, Claud. VI. Cons. Hon. 391: anceps labyrinthus et error circumflexus, full of windings and turnings, Prud. Apoth. 71.
    1. B. In later gram. t. t., to mark with a circumflex, to pronounce as long (in Quint., instead of it, circumducere, q. v.): penultimam, Gell. 4, 7, 2: syllaba circumflexa, id. 4, 7, 2, § 4; Diom. p. 425 P.; Prisc. p. 1287 ib. et saep.
      Adv.: circum-flexē, with a circumflex: promere ( = pronuntiare) syllabam, Gell. 4, 7, 4: enuntiare syllabam, Porphyr. ad Hor. C. 4, 9, 1; id. ad Hor. S. 1, 1, 1.

circumflexē, adv., v. circumflecto fin.

circumflexĭbĭlis, e, adj. [circumflecto], provided with a circumflex accent (late Lat.), Excerpt. ex Macr. Diff. p. 235 Jan.

* circumflexĭo, ōnis, f. [circumflecto], a bending or winding round: obliqua circuli, Macr. Somn. Scip. 1, 12, 1.

1. circumflexus, a, um, Part., from circumflecto.

2. circumflexus, ūs, m. [circumflecto],

  1. I. a bending round, a vault, arch: mundi, Plin. 2, 1, 1, § 1: caeli, id. 6, 34, 39, § 212.
  2. II. A winding, circuit: qui (Tanais) per sinuosos labitur circumflexus, Amm. 22, 8, 27.

circum -flo, āre, v. n.,

  1. I. to blow round about; of the wind (very rare; in the class. per. only in the foll. exs.): circumflantibus Austris, Stat. Th. 11, 42.
  2. II. Trop.: ab omnibus ventis invidiae circumflari, to be assailed by every blast. of envy, * Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, § 98.

circum-flŭo, xi, 3, v. n. and

  1. I. a., to flow round (class. in prose and poetry).
          1. (α) Neutr.: in poculis repletis circumfluere quod supersit, flows over all around, Plin. 2, 65, 68, § 163; cf. Curt. 8, 8, 12.
          2. (β) Act.: utrumque latus circumfluit aequoris unda, Ov. M. 13, 779: Cariam circumfluunt Maeander et Orsinus, Plin. 5, 29, 29, § 108; cf.: cum aliae aquae subterfluant terras, aliae circumfluant, Sen. Q. N. 3, 30, 4; Dig. 41, 1, 30, § 2; Ov. M. 3, 74: cum (oceanus) omnis terras circumfluat, Gell. 12, 13, 20: Smyrna, quam circumfluit Meles fluvius, Mart. Cap. 6, § 686; Sen. Suas. 1, 4; 2, 5.
  2. II. Trop.
    1. A. In gen., to flock around, encompass, surround: mulos circumfluxisse (lupum) et ungulis caedendo eum occidisse, Varr. R. R. 2, 9, 2: circumfluxit nos cervorum, aprorum, etc., multitudo, id. ib. 3, 13, 3; cf. robora (dracones), Luc. 3, 421.
    2. B. To be present or exist in rich abundance, to abound, overflow: circumfluentibus undique eloquentiae copiis, * Quint. 12, 10, 78: circumfluentibus quietae felicitatis insignibus, Just. 18, 7, 10.
      Also with acc. pers.: secundis rebus, quae circumfluunt vos, insanire coepistis, Curt. 10, 2, 2.
    3. C. Circumfluere aliquā re, like abundare, to overflow with, to have an abundance, to be rich in: omnibus copiis, atque in omnium rerum abundantiā vivere, Cic. Lael. 15, 52: circumfluens gloriā, id. Att. 2, 21, 3: Catilina circumfluens Arretinorum exercitu, id. Mur. 24, 49.
      Also absol.: circumfluere atque abundare, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 4, § 9: insatiabilis avaritiae est, adhuc inplere velle, quod jam circumfluit, Curt. 8, 8, 12.
      Of too great copiousness of diction: nec redundans, nec circumfluens oratio, too copious, Cic. Brut. 55, 203.

circumflŭus, a, um, adj. [circumfluo] (poet. or in post-Aug. prose).

  1. I. Act., flowing around, circumfluent: umor, Ov. M. 1, 30: amnis, id. ib. 15, 739: mare, Plin. 2, 66, 66, § 166.
    More freq.,
  2. II. Pass., flowed around, surrounded with water: insula, Ov. M. 15, 624: tellus Hadriaco ponto, Luc. 4, 407: Carthago pelago, Sil. 15, 220: urbs Ponto, Val. Fl. 5, 442: campi Euphrate et Tigre, * Tac. A. 6, 37: omnis circumfluo ambitu Pontus est, Amm. 22, 8, 46.
    1. B. In gen., surrounded, encircled: chlamys limbo Maeonio, Stat. Th. 6, 540: genitrix gemmis, Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 138.
      Fig.: mens luxu, Claud. Cons. Prob. et Olybr. 40.

circum -fŏdĭo, no perf., fossum, ĕre (inf. pass.: circumfodiri, Col. 5, 9, 12; cf. fodio), v. n. and a., to dig around something, dig about (agricultural t. t.).

        1. (α) Neutr., Cato, R. R. 161. 4.
        2. (β) Act.: truncum, Col. 5, 6, 17: platanos, Sen. Ep 12, 2: arbores, Plin. 17, 26, 39, § 248: plantas, Pall. Febr. 20, 2.
          Inf. pass.: circumfodi, Pall. Mart. 10, 19.
          Part. perf. pass.: circumfosso stipite, Plin. 17, 27, 43, § 252.

circum -fŏrānĕus, a, um, adj. [forum].

  1. * I. Of or around the forum or market-place: aes, debts due in the forum (because the bankers’ shops were at the forum), Cic. Att. 2, 1, 11.
    More freq.,
  2. II. Strolling about from market to market, that attends markets: pharmacopola, Cic. Clu. 14, 40: lanista, * Suet. Vit. 12: medicabulum, App. M. 9, p. 218, 41.
    1. B. In gen., that is carried about, ambulatory, movable: domus, App. M. 4, p. 148, 29: hostiae, which are carried about for expiation (cf. circumfero, II. C.), App. M. 3, p. 130, 5.

* circum -fŏrātus, a, um, Part. [foro], bored or pierced round’ stipes, Plin. 17, 27, 43, § 252.

* circumfossor, ōris, m. [circumfodio], one who digs around something, Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 227.

* circumfossūra, ae, f. [circumfodio], a digging round, Plin. 17, 26, 39, § 247.

circum-fractus, a, um, Part. [frango], broken off around: turbo, broken around (sc. scopulos), Amm. 22, 8, 15: colles, precipitous, id. 29, 4, 5.

circum -frĕmo, ĕre, v. n. and a., to make a noise around something (post-Aug. and rare): nidos, of birds, Sen. Cons. ad Marc. 7, 2; Prud. Cath. 479.

* circum -frĭco, āre, v. a., to rub around, to scour, Cato, R. R. 26.

* circum-fulcĭo, īre, v. a., to support, hold up around: togam, Tert. Pall. 5.

* circum -fulgĕo, ēre, v. n., to shine around, Plin. 2, 37, 37, § 101.

circum-fundo, fūdi, fūsum, 3, v. a., lit. to pour out around, i.e. as in circumdo, either with the acc. of that which is poured, to pour around; or, with the acc. of that around which something is poured, to surround with a liquid (class. in prose and poetry).

  1. I. Lit.
    1. A. With acc. of the liquid poured (with or without dat. of the object around which): amurcam ad oleam circumfundito, Cato, R. R. 93: Tigris urbi circumfunditur, surrounds, flows round the town, Plin. 6, 27, 31, § 132.
      More freq. in part. perf. pass.: mare circumfusum urbi, the sea flowing around the town, Liv. 30, 9, 12: gens circumfusis invia fluminibus, Ov. F. 5, 582: circumfusus nobis spiritus, Quint. 12, 11, 13: nec circumfuso pendebat in aëre tellus, circumambient, Ov. M. 1, 12; imitated by Tib. 4, 1, 151.
      Reflex.: circumfudit se repente nubes, Lact. 4, 21, 1.
      Once mid.: cum fervet (lac), ne circumfundatur, etc., pour itself out around, i. e. run over, Plin. 28, 9, 33, § 126; cf.: circumfusa nubes, Verg. A. 1, 586.
    2. B. With acc. of the object around which, etc., with or without abl. of the fluid: (mortuum) cerā circumfuderunt, Nep. Ages. 8, 7: terram crassissimus circumfundit aër, encompasses, envelops, Cic. N. D. 2, 6, 17: terra circumfusa illo mari, quem oceanum appellatis, id. Rep. 6, 20, 21: et multo nebulae circum dea fudit amictu (tmesis), Verg. A. 1, 412: quas circumfuderat atra tempestas, Sil. 7, 723.
  2. II. Transf. to objects that do not flow, esp. if there is a great multitude, as it were, heaped upon a thing.
    1. A. (Acc. to I. 1.) Mid., to press upon, crowd around, embrace closely, cling to (freq. in the histt.): circumfunduntur ex reliquis hostes partibus, Caes. B. G. 6, 37; 7, 28; id. B. C. 3. 63: equites infestis cuspidibus circumfunduntur, Liv. 10, 36, 9; 25, 34, 9; 27, 19, 3; 44, 23, 8: (Nymphae) circumfusae Dianam Corporibus texere suis, surrounding, Ov. M. 3, 180: multitudo circumfusa, Caes. B. G. 6, 34; Liv. 2, 28, 6; 4, 46, 6; Curt. 8, 14, 31; Quint. 4, 2, 37.
      With the dat. of that upon which a multitude presses: circumfundebantur obviis sciscitantes, Liv. 22, 7, 11; 22, 14, 15; 26, 27, 10; 29, 34, 14 al.: circumfusa turba lateri meo, id. 6, 15, 9: ut lateribus circumfundi posset equitatus. Curt. 3, 9, 12.
      With acc. (depending on circum): Pacidiussuos equites exporrigere coepit … uthaberent facultatem turmas Julianas circumfundi, to surround, encompass them, Auct. B. Afr. 78 Oud. N. cr.
      Poet. also of a single person: et nunc hac juveni, nunc circumfunditur illac, i. e. clings to, or closely embraces him, Ov. M. 4, 360; 14, 354; cf. with acc.: hunc (sc. Mavortem), tu, diva, tuo recubantem corpore sancto circumfusa super, Lucr. 1, 40.
          1. (β) So once in the active voice, absol.: circumfudit eques, Tac. A. 3, 46.
      1. 2. Trop.: undique circumfusae molestiae, Cic. Tusc. 5, 41, 121: non est tantum ab hostibus aetati nostrae periculum, quantum ab circumfusis undique voluptatibus, Liv 30, 14, 6: circumfuso nitore, Quint. 4, 1, 59.
    2. B. (Acc. to I. 2.) To enclose, environ, surround, overwhelm: circumfusus publicorum praesidiorum copiis, Cic. Mil. 26, 71: praefectum castrorum circumfundunt, Tac. A. 12, 38; so id. H. 2, 19; 4, 20; id. A. 13, 40; Plin. 5, 12, 13, § 67; Sil. 7, 306: circumfusus hostium concursu, Nep. Chabr. 4, 2: M. Catonem vidi in bibliothecā sedentem, multis circumfusum Stoicorum libris, Cic. Fin. 3, 2, 7; Quint. 9, 4, 91, Curt. 3, 11, 4: amplexibus alicujus, Vell. 2, 123, 3: X. milia Bojorum alio latere quam exspectabatur missis legionibus circumfudit, Front. 1, 2, 7.
      1. 2. Trop.: cum has terras incolentes circumfusi erant caligine, Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 45: latent ista omnia crassis occultata et circumfusa tenebris, id. Ac. 2, 39, 122: ut, quantā luce ea circumfusa sunt, possint agnoscere, id. ib. 2, 15, 46: eos stultitiā obruit, tenebris circumfundit, Lact. 3, 29, 14: circumfundit, aliquem multo splendore, Sen. Tranq. 1, 9.

circumfūsĭo, ōnis, f. [circumfundo], a pouring around (post-class.) spiritus ignei, Firm. Math. 1, 4: Oceani, id. ib. praef.

circumfūsus, a, um, Part., from circumfundo.

* circum -garrĭens, entis, Part. [garrio], blabbing or babbling about. falsiloquia, Claud Mam. Stat. An. 2, 9.

circum-gĕlo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a., to freeze all around corpus, Tert. Anim. 23: cortex circumgelatus, Plin. 13, 22, 40, § 120.

* circum-gĕmo, ĕre, v. n., to roar around something: circumgemit ursus ovile, Hor. Epod. 16, 51.

circum-gesto, āre, v. freq. a., to bear or carry around’ epistulam, * Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 6; deam, App. M. 8, 213, 37.

* circum-glŏbātus, a, um, Part. [globo], rolled together, conglobated: animalia escae circumglobata, small insects, Plin. 9, 47, 71, § 154.

circum-grĕdĭor, gressus, grĕdi, v dep [gradior], to go or walk around, travel about (esp. in a hostile manner; post-Aug., several times in Tac, elsewhere rare).

        1. (α) Absol., Tac. A. 1, 64, 2, 17; 12, 28.
        2. (β) With acc.: exercitum, * Sall. H. 4, 61, 21 Dietsch: terga, Tac. A. 2, 25’ Syriam, Aur Vict. Caes. 21’ lacunam, Amm. 16, 12, 59.

1. circumgressus, a, um, Part., from circumgredior

2. circumgressus, ūs, m. [circumgredior] (perh. only in Amm.).

  1. * I. Abstr., a going about’ rapidi, Amm. 22, 2, 3.
  2. * II. Concr., the compass, circuit of a thing’ amplissimi palus Maeotis, Amm. 22, 8, 30.

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