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jānŭa, ae, f. [Janus, i. e. ianus, from i, ire; cf. Sanscr. yāna, itio, incessus, from yā, ire], a door, house-door.
- I. Lit.: principem in sacrificando Janum esse voluerunt, quod ab eundo nomen est ductum: ex quo transitiones perviae, jani; foresque in liminibus profanarum aedium januae nominantur, Cic. N. D. 2, 27, 67: claudere, id. Verr. 2, 1, 26, § 66: januam occludere, Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 11: pultare, id. Poen. 3, 4, 30: ante ostium et januam, id. Pers. 5, 1, 6: indiligenter observare, id. As. 2, 2, 7: reserare, Ov. H. 4, 141: frangere, Hor. S. 1, 2, 128.
The dog was commonly chained there; hence, janua mordax, Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 1; cf. id. Most. 3, 2, 126 sq.
- B. Transf., an entrance of any sort: inferni janua regis, Verg. A. 6, 106; cf.: atri janua Ditis, id. ib. 6, 127: mortis, Sil. 11, 187: leti, Val. Fl. 4, 23: cum eam urbem sibi Mithridates Asiae januam fore putasset, the key of Asia, Cic. Mur. 15, 33: hic locus est gemini janua vasta maris, Ov. Tr. 1, 10, 32.
- II. Trop., an entrance, approach: qua nolui janua sum ingressus in causam, Cic. Planc. 3, 8: facillime vos ad ea, quae cupitis, perventuros, ab hoc aditu januaque patefacta, id. de Or. 1, 47, 204: illa januam Famae patefecit, Plin. Ep. 1, 18, 4; Val. Fl. 4, 231: vultus ac frons, quae est animi janua, Q. Cic. Pet. Cons. 11, 44: ego sum ostium, Vulg. Johan. 10, 2.
‡ Jānŭal, ālis, n.: libi genus, quod Jano tantummodo libatur, Paul. ex Fest. p. 104 Müll.
Jānŭālis, e, adj. [Janus], of or belonging to Janus: versus Januales (al. Janulii), Paul. ex Fest. s. v. axamenta: Janualis porta dicta ab Jano: et ideo ibi positum Jani signum, et jus institutum a Numa Pompilio, ut scribit in annalibus L. Piso, ut sit clausa semper, nisi cum bellum sit, Varr. L. L. 5, § 165; cf. Ov. F. 1, 127; Macr. S. 1, 9.
Jānŭārĭus, a, um, adj. [Janus], of or belonging to Janus.
- A. Januarius mensis, the month of January: auctio constituta in mensem Januarium, Cic. Agr. 1, 2, 4: Januario mense cura ut Romae sis, id. Att. 1, 2, 2.
Also, subst.: Jānŭārĭus, i, m. (sc. mensis), January: a. d. VII. Idus Januarii, Caes. B. C. 1, 5; Hirt. B. G. 8, 2.
- B. Kalendae Januariae, the first day of January. This was a festival on which the Romans presented their good wishes to each other It was also regarded as a fortunate day on which to begin any undertaking, Cic. Agr. 1, 8, 26; 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 8; Ov. F. 1, 64; Col. 11, 2: Nonae Januariae, Caes. B. C. 3, 6; Plin. 8, 45, 70, § 177.
Jānus, i, m. [root i, ire, prop. a going, a going through, passage; cf. janua],
- I. an old Italian deity. He was represented with a face on the front and another on the back of his head, Ov. F. 1, 245; hence, anceps, id. M. 14, 334. The month of January, Mensis Jani, Ov. F. 2, 51, was sacred to him, as were all other beginnings. The myth makes him a king of Latium or Etruria, where he hospitably received Saturn when expelled by Jupiter from Crete, Macr. S. 1, 7, 8, 9. He had a small temple in the Forum, with two doors opposite to each other, which in time of war stood open and in time of peace were shut; the temple was thrice closed on this account: in the time of Numa, after the first Punic war, and after the battle of Actium, Ov. F. 1, 281. With reference to his temple, the deity was called Janus geminus, or Janus Quirinus, Macr. S. 1, 9; Suet. Aug. 22; for which, poet.: Janus Quirini, Hor. C. 4, 15, 9.
Joined with pater: Januspater, Gell. 5, 12, 5.
- II. Transf.
- A. The temple of Janus: Janum ad infimum Argiletum indicem pacis bellique fecit, Liv. 1, 19; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 20, 1.
- B. An arched passageway, covered passage, arcade: janos tres faciendos locavit, Liv. 41, 27; 2, 49; Cic. N. D. 2, 27, 67; Suet. Aug. 31.
- C. In partic., Jani, four arched passages in the Roman Forum, where the merchants and moneychangers had their stand: qui Puteal Janumque timet, celeresque Calendas, Ov. R. Am. 561: haec Janus summus ab imo Prodocet, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54: postquam omnis res mea Janum Ad medium fracta est, id. S. 2, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 2, 25, 90; id. Phil. 6, 5, 15 al.
- D. A year: vive, vale et totidem venturos congere Janos, quot, etc., Aus. Ep. 20, 13.
Jānus-păter, v. Janus.