Ăpollo, ĭnis (earlier Ăpello, like hemo for homo, Paul. ex Fest. p. 22 Müll.;
- I. gen. APOLONES, Inscr. Orell. 1433, like salutes, v. salus; dat. APOLLONI, Corp. Inscr. III. 567, APOLENEI, ib. I. 167, APOLONE, Inscr. Ritschl, Epigr. Suppl. 3, p. 3; abl. APOLONE; the gen. Apollōnis etc., is often found in MSS., as in Cic. Tusc. 1, 47, 114, and even Apollŏnis is found in Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 119; Neue, Formenl. I. p. 165), m., = Ἀπόλλων, Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, twinbrother of Diana, and god of the sun. On account of his omniscience, god of divination; on account of his lightnings (βέλη), god of archery (hence represented with quiver and dart), and of the pestilence caused by heat; but, since his priests were the first physicians, also god of the healing art; and since he communicated oracles in verse, god of poetry and music, presiding over the Muses, etc.; cf. Hor. C. S. 61 sq. In more ancient times, represented as a protecting deity, by a conical pillar in the streets and highways (Apollo Agyieus, v. Agyieus and Müll. Denkm. 2). In the class. period of the arts, represented with weapons, the cithara, a crown of laurel, etc., with hair commonly flowing down upon his neck, but sometimes collected together and fastened up (ἀκερσεκόμης), as a blooming youth (μειράκιον); cf. Müll. Archaeol. §§ 359 and 360. The laurel-tree was sacred to him, Phaedr. 3, 17, 3; Ov. F. 6, 91; hence, arbor Phoebi, the laurel-tree, id. ib. 3, 139; cf. arbor.
After the battle at Actium, Augustus there consecrated a temple to Apollo; hence, Apollo Actiacus, Ov. M. 13, 715, and Actius Phoebus, Prop. 5, 6, 67 (cf. Strabo, 10, 451, and v. Actium and Actius): Pythius Apollo, Naev. ap. Macr. S. 6, 5: crinitus Apollo, Enn. ap. Cic. Ac. 2, 28, 89: dignos et Apolline crines, Ov. M. 3, 421: flavus Apollo, id. Am. 1, 15, 35: Apollinis nomen est Graecum, quem solem esse volunt, Cic. N. D. 2, 27, 68: Apollinem Delium, id. Verr. 1, 18, 48; Verg. A. 4, 162: Apollinem morbos depellere, Caes. B. G. 6, 17; Verg. E. 6, 73; Hor. C. 1, 7, 28: magnus Apollo, Verg. E. 3, 104: formosus, id. ib. 4, 53: pulcher, id. A. 3, 119: vates Apollo, Val. Fl. 4, 445: oraculum Apollinis, Cic. Am. 2, 7.
- II. Esp.
- A. Apollinis urbs magna, a town in Upper Egypt, also called Apollonopolis, now the village Edju, Plin. 5, 9, 11, § 60; cf. Mann. Afr. I. 328.
- B. Apollinis promontorium.
- a. In Zeugitana in Africa, a mile east of Utica, now Cape Gobeah or Farina (previously called promontorium pulchrum), Liv. 30, 24, 8; Mel. 1, 7, 2; Plin. 5, 4, 3, § 23; cf. Mann. Afr. II. 293.
- b. In Mauretania, Plin. 5, 2, 1, § 20.
- C. Apollinis oppidum, a town in the eastern part of Ethiopia, Plin. 6, 30, 35, § 189.
- D. Apollinis Phaestii portus, a harbor in the territory of Locri Ozolœ, Plin. 4, 3, 4, § 7.
- E. Apollinis Libystini fanum, a place in Sicily, now Fano, Macr. S. 1, 17.