3. dĭs, an inseparable particle [Sanscr. dva, two: dvis, twice; Gr. δίς (δϝις); cf.: bis, bini, dubius, duo; also Sanscr. vi- (for dvi-) = dis-], occurs before vowels only in dishiasco; it stands unchanged before
- I. c, p, q, t, s, and di; loses its s before b, d, g, l, m, n, r, and v; and becomes dif-before f. So, discedo, dispar, disquiro, distraho, dissolvo; dibalo, dido, digero, dilabor, dimetior, dinumero, dirigo, divello, etc. Before j (i) we have sometimes dī-, as in dijudico, dijungo, and sometimes dis-, as in disjeci, disjungo. Iacio makes disicio or dissicio. In late Lat. disglutino and disgrego occur; while disrumpo occurs in Cic. Lael. 22, 85; cf. dirrumpo, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 37: dirripio in Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 37, in some MSS.; and dimminuo in MSS. of Plautus, v. Neue Formenl. 2, 782 sq.
- II. Meaning.
- A. Dis, in most cases, answers to our asunder, in pieces, apart, in two, in different directions, implying separation or division, as in: diffindo, diffugio, digero, discedo, discepto, discerno, discerpo, discindo, dido, diffindo, dimitto, dirumpo, divido, and a multitude of others.
- B. Less freq. = Engl. un-, reversing or negativing the meaning of the primitive, as in discingo, disconduco, disconvenio, diffido, diffiteor, disjungo, displiceo, dissimulo, dissocio, dissuadeo, and a few others; so, dinumero, to count as separate objects: disputo, to discuss different views or things.
- C. In a few words dis- acquires an intensive force, exceedingly, as, differtus, dilaudo, discupio, disperio (utterly), dispudet, dissuavior, distaedet. This is but a development of its original meaning: thus, differtus is properly stuffed out; dilaudo, to scatter praise of, etc.
- D. Between, among, through: dinosco, dirigo (or derigo), dijudico, diligo, dilucesco, dispicio, dissereno.