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consul (in the oldest inscrr. CONSOL, COSOL; abbrev. COS., also in plur. COSS., not before the time of the emperors), ŭlis, m. [prob. from root sal- of salio; Sanscr. sar-, go; hence also exsul, praesul, v. Corss. Ausspr. II. p. 71],
- I. a consul, one of the two highest magistrates of the Roman state, chosen annually, after the expulsion of the kings; cf. concerning his election, administration, duties, etc., Dict. Antiq., and the authors there cited (freq. in all periods and species of composition): qui recte consulat, consul cluat, Att. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 80 Müll.; Cic. Leg. 3, 3, 8; Quint. 1, 6, 32; Plin. 7, 43, 44, § 136: consul ordinarius, one who entered on his office at the regular time, viz. on the first of January; opp. consul suffectus, one chosen in the course of the year in the place of one who had died, or, after the time of the emperors, as a mere honorary title; v. ordinarius and sufficio: consul designatus, consul elect (so called in the interval between election, at the beginning of August, and entrance on his duties, on the 1st of January), v. designo: consul major, one who had the largest number of votes, or with whom the Fasces were, or one who was oldest (acc. to Nieb., orig. he who was of noble origin); cf. Fest. s. v. majorem consulem, p. 161, 31 Müll.; after the Lex Julia, who had most children, Gell. 2, 15, 4: consulem creare, Cic. Att. 9, 9, 3; Caes. B. C. 3, 1 al.: dicere, Liv. 27, 6, 3: facere, Cic. Agr. 2, 1, 3; id. de Or. 2, 66, 268: sufficere, id. Mur. 38, 82 al.: declarare, id. Agr. 2, 2, 4 al.: renuntiare, id. Mur. 1, 1 al.: aliquem consulem designare, Amm. 21, 12, 25: esse pro consule, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 91, § 212 al. In reference to the expression bis, iterum, ter, quater, etc.; tertio or tertium, etc, consul, v. the words bis, iterum, etc., and cf. Gell. 10, 1, 3 and 6.
- B. Esp.
- 1. In abl. with the names of the consuls (in the poets usu. of one consul), for the designation of the year: Orgetorix M. Messalá M. Pisone Coss., regni cupiditate inductus, etc., in the consulship of (i. e. in the year of Rome 693), Caes. B. G. 1, 2: is dies erat a. d. V. Kal. Apr. L. Pisone A. Gabinio Coss. (i. e. the 27th of March, 696 of the city), id. ib. 1, 6 fin.: Romam venit Mario consule et Catulo, Cic. Arch. 3, 5; id. Brut. 43, 161 al.: amphora fumum bibere instituta Consule Tullo, Hor. C. 3, 8, 12; 3, 14, 28; 3, 21, 1; id. Epod. 13, 6 al.; cf.: Bibuli consulis amphora, id. C. 3, 28, 8: amphora centeno consule facta minor, i. e. a hundred years old, Mart. 8, 45, 4.
- 2. Sing., as collective term for the magistracy, the consuls, when the office is in view rather than the persons: quod populus in se jus dederit, eo consulem usurum; non ipsos (sc. consules) libidinem ac licentiam suam pro lege habituros, Liv. 3, 9, 5 Weissenb. ad loc.: legatisque ad consulem missis, id. 21, 52, 6 Heerw. ad loc.: aliter sine populi jussu nullius earum rerum consuli jus est, Sall. C. 29, 3.
- II. Meton.
- A. A proconsul, Liv. 26, 33, 4 Weissenb. ad loc.; cf. id. § 7; 31, 49, 4; Nep. Cato, 1, 3; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 6, 3, 2; Flor. 2, 14, 5; Eutr. 3, 14.
- B. The highest magistrate in other states: consul Tusculanorum, Plin. 7, 43, 44, § 136: BARCINONENSIS, Inscr. Grut. 4, 29, 9: COLONLAE ASTIGITANAE, ib. 351, 5; Aus. Clar. Urb. 14, 39.
- C. An epithet of Jupiter, Vop. Firm. 3; App. de Mundo, c. 25.
- * D. Poet.: est animus tibi … consul non unius anni, continually fulfilling the duties of the highest magistracy, Hor. C. 4, 9, 39 Orell. ad loc.