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ālĕa, ae, f. [of uncer. origin; Curtius asserts an obscure connection with the words for bone; Sanscr. asthi; Zend, açti; Gr. ὀστέον; Lat. os (ossis)].
- I. A game with dice, and in gen., a game of hazard or chance. There were among the Romans two kinds of dice, tesserae and tali, Cic. Sen. 16, 58. The tesserae had six sides, which were marked with I. II. III. IV. V. VI.; the tali were rounded on two sides, and marked only on the other four. Upon one side there was one point, unio, an ace, like the ace on cards, called canis; on the opp. side, six points called senio, six, sice; on the two other sides, three and four points, ternio and quaternio. In playing, four tali were used, but only three tesserae. They were put into a box made in the form of a tower, with a strait neck, and wider below than above, called fritillus, turris, turricula, etc. This box was shaken, and the dice were thrown upon the gaming-board. The highest or most fortunate throw, called Venus, jactus Venereus or basilicus, was, of the tesserae, three sixes, and of the tali when they all came out with different numbers. The worst or lowest throw, called jactus pessimus or damnosus, canis or canicula, was, of the tesserae, three aces, and of the tali when they were all the same. The other throws were valued acc. to the numbers. When one of the tali fell upon the end (in caput) it was said rectus cadere, or assistere, Cic. Fin. 3, 16, 54, and the throw was repeated. While throwing the dice, it was customary for a person to express his wishes, to repeat the name of his mistress, and the like. Games of chance were prohibited by the Lex Titia et Publicia et Cornelia (cf. Hor. C. 3, 24, 58), except in the month of December, during the Saturnalia, Mart. 4, 14, 7; 5, 85; 14, 1; Suet. Aug. 71; Dig. 11, 5. The character of gamesters, aleatores or aleones, was held as infamous in the time of Cicero, cf. Cic. Cat. 2, 5, 10; id. Phil. 2, 23, although there was much playing with aleae, and old men were esp. fond of this game, because it required little physical exertion, Cic. Sen. 16, 58; Suet. Aug. 71; Juv. 14, 4; cf. Jahn, Ov. Tr. 2, 471; Rupert. ad Tac. G. 24, 5: provocat me in aleam, ut ego ludam, Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 75.
Ludere aleā or aleam, also sometimes in aleā: in foro aleā ludere, Cic. Phil. 2, 23, 56; Dig. 11, 5, 1: ludit assidue aleam, Poët. ap. Suet. Aug. 70: aleam studiosissime lusit, Suet. Claud. 33; so id. Ner. 30; Juv. 8, 10: repetitio ejus, quod in aleā lusum est, Dig. 11, 5, 4.
Hence, in aleā aliquid perdere, Cic. Phil. 2, 13: exercere aleam, Tac. G. 24: indulgere aleae, Suet. Aug. 70: oblectare se aleā, id. Dom. 21: prosperiore aleā uti, to play fortunately, id. Calig. 41.
Trop.: Jacta alea esto, Let the die be cast! Let the game be ventured! the memorable exclamation of Cæsar when, at the Rubicon, after long hesitation, he finally decided to march to Rome, Suet. Caes. 32, ubi v. Casaub. and Ruhnk.
- II. Transf., any thing uncertain or contingent, an accident, chance, hazard, venture, risk: alea domini vitae ac rei familiaris, Varr. R. R. 1, 4: sequentes non aleam, sed rationem aliquam, id. ib. 1, 18: aleam inesse hostiis deligendis, Cic. Div. 2, 15: dare summam rerum in aleam, to risk, Liv. 42, 59: in dubiam imperii servitiique aleam ire, fortune, chance, id. 1, 23: alea belli, id. 37, 36: talibus admissis alea grandis inest, Ov. A. A. 1, 376: periculosae plenum opus aleae, Hor. C. 2, 1, 6: M. Tullius extra omnem ingenii aleam positus, raised above all doubt of his talents, Plin. praef. § 7: emere aleam, in the Pandects, to purchase any thing uncertain, contingent, e. g. a draught of fishes, Dig. 18, 1, 8; so ib. 18, 4, 7.
ālĕāris, e, adj. [alea], of or pertaining to a game of chance: tabula, Cael. Aur. Chron. 2, 1.
* ālĕārĭus, a, um, adj. [alea], of or pertaining to a game of chance: amicitiae, formed at the gaming-table, Amm. 28, 4, 21.
ālĕātor, ōris, m. [alea], a player with dice, also a gamester in gen., Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 29; Cic. Cat. 2, 10, 23; id. Phil. 2, 27: aleatoris castra, id. Verr. 2, 5, 13; so Sid. Ep. 5, 17; Dig. 11, 5; Cod. 3, 43.
ālĕātōrĭus, a, um, adj. [aleator], pertaining to a gamester: aleatoria damna, in gaming, * Cic. Phil. 2, 27: aleatorium forum calfecimus, gaming-board, August. ap. Suet. Aug. 71: ritu, Gell. 18, 13.
Hence, ālĕātōrĭum, ii, n., the place where games of chance are played, a gaming-house, Sid. Ep. 2, 2.
Ălēbas, v. Aleuas.
‡ ălebrĭa, ium, n. [alo], nourishing food, = bene alentia, Paul. ex Fest. p. 25 Müll.
ālec (better, allec; hallec also in MSS.), ēcis, n., or ālex (hāl-), ēcis, f. and m. (v. Rudd. I. p. 17, n. 93; Schneid. Gr. 2, 110 and 128), acc. to Plin. 31, 8, 44, § 95, the sediment of a costly fish-sauce, garum; and in gen. the sauce prepared from small fish, fish-pickle, fish-brine: alec danunt, * Plaut. Fragm. ap. Non. 2, 395; 120, 3: faecem et allec, Hor. S. 2, 4, 73; 2, 8, 9 K. and H.: putri cepas hallece natantes, Mart. 3, 77 Schneid.
The plur. not in use, v. Prisc. p. 686 P.
Ālecto, ūs, f., = Ἀληκτώ, οῦς (found only in nom. and acc.), the name of one of the three furies, Verg. A. 7, 341: Alecto torvam faciem Exuit, id. ib. 7, 415: luctificam Alecto ciet, id. ib. 7, 324.
* ălectŏrĭus, a, um, adj., pertaining to a cock (ἀλέκτωρ): gemma, a gem found in the maw of a cock, Plin. 37, 10, 54, § 144.
† ălectŏrŏlŏphŏs, i, f., = ἀλεκτορόλοφος, an herb good for a cough, cock’s comb: Rhinanthus crista galli, Linn.; Plin. 27, 5, 23, § 40.
ālēcŭla, ae, f. dim. [alec], fish-sauce, Col. 8, 17; 6, 8.
Ălēĭus, a, um, adj., = Ἀλήϊος, of or pertaining to Ale in Lycia: Aleïi campi, where Bellerophon, having been thrown from Pegasus, and blinded by the lightning of Jupiter, wandered and perished, Hyg. Fab. 57; Ov. Ib. 259: qui miser in campis maerens errabat Aleïs (per synaeresin for Aleïis), Cic. Tusc. 3, 26, 63 (as transl. of Ἤτοι ὁ κὰπ πεδίον τὸ Ἀλήιον οἶος ἀλᾶτο, Hom. ll. 6, 201; cf. Plin. 5, 27, 22, § 91).
Ălĕmanni (Ălămanni and Ălă-mani), ōrum, m. [= Alle-Männer],
- I. the Alemanni, German tribes who (as their name indicates) formed a confederation on the Upper Rhine and Danube, from whom the Gauls transferred the name to the whole German nation; cf. Aur. Vict. Caes. 21; Claud. II. Cons. Stil. 17; Sid. 5, 375.
- II. Derivv.,
- 1. Ălĕmannĭa (Ălăm-), ae, f. [cf. Fr. Allemagne; Ital. Alemagna], the country of the Alemanni, Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 234.
- 2. Ălĕmannĭcus (Ălăm-), a, um, adj., Alemannic, pertaining to the Alemanni: tentoria, Amm. 27, 2.
Hence, a surname of Caracalla, on account of his victory over the Alemanni, Spart. Carac. 10.
- 3. Ălĕmannus (Ălăm-), i, m., a surname of the emperor Gratian, on account of his victory over the Alemanni, Aur. Vict. Epit. 47.
Ălēmon, ŏnis, m. [ἀλήμων, a wanderer], a Greek; father of Myscelus, who built Crotona in Lower Italy, Ov. M. 15, 18.
* Ălĕmōna (Ălĭm-), ae, f. [alo], a tutelar goddess of the fœtus, Tert. Anim. 37.
Ălēmŏnĭdēs, ae, m. patr., the son of Alemon, i. e. Myscelus, who founded Crotona in Lower Italy, Ov. M. 15, 26.
ālĕo, ōnis, m. (rare, for the class. aleator), a gamester, Naev. ap. Fest. 24: impudicus et vorax et aleo, Cat. 29, 2; 6, 11; Tert. Fug. ap. Pers. 13.
Ălĕrĭa, ae, f., = Ἀλερία, the oldest town of the island Corsica, captured by L. Scipio: HEC. CEPIT. CORSICA(m). ALERIA(m) QVE. VRBE(m), the second epitaph of the Scipios in Grotef. 4, 298; cf. Wordsw. p. 160; Mannert. Ital. 2, 516 sq.
ālĕs, ālĭtĭs (abl. aliti, Sen. Med. 1014; gen. plur. alitum, Mart. 13, 6, and lengthened alituum, Lucr. 2, 928; 5, 801; 1039; 1078; 6, 1216; Verg. A. 8, 27; Stat. S. 1, 2, 184; Manil. 5, 370; Amm. 19, 2) [ala-ire, as comes, eques, etc., acc. to some; but cf. Corss. Ausspr. II. p. 209], adj. and subst. (poet. and post-Aug. prose).
- I. Adj., winged: angues, Pac. ap. Cic. Inv. 1, 19; cf. Mos. Cic. Rep. 3, 9: ales avis, Cic. N. D. 2, 44 (as transl. of the Gr. αἰόλος ὄρνις, Arat. Phaen. 275): equus, i. e. Pegasus, Ov. Am. 3, 12, 24: deus, Mercury, id. M. 2, 714; so also Stat. Th. 4, 605: currus, Sen. Med. 1024: fama, Claud. I. Cons. Stil. 2, 408.
And with a trope common in all languages, quick, fleet, rapid, swift: rutili tris ignis et alitis Austri, Verg. A. 8, 430: passus, Ov. M. 10, 587: harundo, the swift arrow, Prud. Psych. 323.
- II. Subst. com. gen., a fowl, a bird (only of large birds, while volucris includes also insects that fly).
- A. Com. gen.: pennis delata, Lucr. 6, 822: exterrita pennis, id. 5, 506: argentea, i. e. the raven before its metamorphosis, Ov. M. 2, 536: superba, the peacock, Mart. 14, 67; 9, 56: longaeva, the phœnix, Claud. 35, 83: famelica, the pigeon-hawk, Plin. 10, 10, 12, § 28.
On the contr., masc.: Phoebeïus, the raven, Ov. M. 2, 544: albus, the swan, Hor. C. 2, 20, 10: cristatus, the cock, Ov. F. 1, 455 al.
- B. Fem., as referring to a female bird: Daulias ales = philomela, Ov. H. 15, 154: exterrita = columba, Verg. A. 5, 505. But ales, i.e. aquila, as the bird of Jove, is sometimes masc.: fulvus Jovis ales, the eagle, id. ib. 12, 247; called also: minister fulminis, Hor. C. 4, 4, 1: flammiger, Stat. Th. 8, 675.
Also fem.: aetheriā lapsa plagā Jovis ales, Verg. A. 1, 394: regia ales, Ov. M. 4, 362: ales digna Jove, Manil. 1, 443.
- C. For a deity as winged, masc.: Cyllenius ales, i.e. Mercury, Claud. 33, 77; or even for men: aureus ales, Perseus, Stat. Th. 1, 544.
- D. Ales canorus, a swan, for a poet, Hor. C. 2, 20, 15.
Also absol. ales: Maeonii carminis ales, of the singer of a Mæonian (Homeric) song, Hor. C. 1, 6, 2 Jahn. (In Ov. M. 5, 298, if ales erant is read, ales is collect.; cf. Schneid. Gr. 2, 240; but the sing. seems to be more in accordance with the preceding hominem putat locutum, she supposing that she heard a man, but it was a bird, and Merkel here reads Ales erat.)
- E. In the lang. of augury, alites are birds that gave omens by their flight, as the buteo, sanqualis, aquila, etc. (but oscines, by their voice, as the corvus, cornix, and noctua), Fest. p. 193 (cf. id. p. 3); Cic. N. D. 2, 64, 160: tum huc, tum illuc volent alites: tum a dextrā, tum a sinistrā parte canant oscines, id. Div. 1, 53, 120; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 6, 6, p. 394; Plin. 10, 19, 22, § 43; Arn. adv. G. 7, 59.
Hence, poet.: ales, augury, omen, sign: cum bonā nubit alite, Cat. 61, 20: malā soluta navis exit alite, Hor. Epod. 10, 1: secundā alite, id. ib. 16, 23.
Ălēsa, v. Halesa.
ălesco, ĕre, v. inch. n. [alo], to grow up, increase (only ante-class.), Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 4; 2, 4, 19: alescendi cacumen, * Lucr. 2, 1130.
Ălĕsĭa, ae, f., = Ἀλεσία, Diod. Sic., a city of the Mandubii in Celtic Gaul, now Alise in the Dép. de la Cōte d’ Or, Caes. B. G. 7, 68; id. B. C. 3, 47; Vell. 2, 47.
Also, Ălexĭa, ae, f., = Ἀλεξία Strabo, Flor. 2, 2; cf. Mannert Gall. 175.
Ălēsus, v. Halesus.
Ălēthīa, ae, f., = ἀλήθεια (truth), one of the Æons of Valentinus, Tert. Valent. 12.
Ălētīnus, i, m., an inhabitant of the town Aletium, in the land of the Hirpini, now Calitri (* acc. to others, Lecce), Plin. 3, 11, 16, § 105.
Ălētrĭum, i, n., a town in Latium, now Alatri; whence,
- a. Ălētrīnas, ātis, adj., pertaining to Aletrium, Cic. Clu. 16. —Ălētrīnātes, the inhabitants of Aletrium, Cic. Clu. 20; Plin. 3, 5, 9, § 63.
- b. Also, Ălētrīnensis, e, the same: foederatus, Cic. Balb. 22 dub.
‡ ălĕtūdo, ĭnis, f. [alo], fatness, = corporis pinguedo, Fest. p. 23.
Ăleuas, ae, m., = Ἀλεύας.
- I. A tyrant of Larissa, slain by his own servants, Ov. Ib. 321 and 509 Merk.
- II. A worker in bronze, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 86.
1. Ālĕus, another reading for Alius, = Elius, Plaut. Capt.; v. 1. Alius.
* 2. Ălĕus, a, um, adj.: Alea Minerva, the Alean or Alic Minerva, so called either from Aleus, king of Arcadia, or from Alea, a town in that country, Stat. Th. 4, 288.
ālex, v. alec.
Ălexămĕnus, i, m., = Ἀλεξαμενός, a leader of the Ætolians, Liv. 35, 24.
Ălexander, dri, m. [Ἀλέξανδρος, hence, Charis. 64 P. asserts that there is also a nom. Alexandrus, but gives no example], the name of many persons of antiquity; among whom,
- I. The most renowned is Alexander, son of Philip and Olympia, surnamed Magnus, the founder of the great Macedonian monarchy extending from Macedonia to the Indus (v. his life in Plut. and Curt.).
- II. Alexander, son of Perseus, king of Macedonia, Liv. 42, 52; 45, 39.
- III. A tyrant of Pherœ, in Thessaly; hence also sometimes called Pheræus, Cic. Div. 1, 25; id. Inv. 2, 49; id. Off. 2, 7; Nep. Pelop. 5, 1.
- IV. A king of Epirus, Liv. 8, 3.
- V. Another name of Paris, son of Priam, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 5, 96; Cic. Fat. 15; Auct. ad Her. 4, 30; hence sometimes, Alexander Paris, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 76 al.
Ălexandrēa (the form of Cicero’s time, Cic. Phil. 2, 19; id. Fin. 5, 19; Prop. 4, 10, 33 (Alexandria, Müll.); Hor. C. 4, 14, 35 K. and H.; also Ălexandrīa under the Empire; so, Antiochēa and Antiochīa; cf. Prisc. p. 588 P., Ochsn. Eclog. 143, and Osann ad Cic. Rep. p. 467), ae, f., = Ἀλεξάνδρεια, a name of several towns of antiquity; among which,
- I. The most distinguished is the city built by Alexander the Great, after the destruction of Tyre, upon the north coast of Egypt, the residence of the Ptolemies, and the emporium of Eastern trade during the Middle Ages, sometimes with the appellation Magna, now Iskenderieh or Alexandria, Plin. 5, 10, 11, § 62.
- II. A town in Troas, now Eski Stamboul, sometimes called Alexandria, Cic. Ac. 2, 4; Plin. 5, 30, 33, § 124; and sometimes Alexandria Troas, Liv. 35, 42; 37, 35; Plin. 36, 16, 25, § 128.
- III. A town in Aria, also called Alexandria Ariōn (i. e. Arionum), now Herat, Plin. 6, 17, 21, § 61; 6, 23, 25, § 93.
Hence, Ălexandrīnus, a, um, adj., pertaining to Alexandria,
- A. In Egypt: vita atque licentia, a luxurious and licentious life, like that of Alexandria, at that time a centre of luxury, Caes. B. C. 3, 110; Petr. 31; Quint. 1, 2, 7 Spald.: Alexandrina navis, an Alexandrian merchantship, Suet. Aug. 98; id. Ner. 45; id. Galb. 10: Bellum Alexandrinum, the history of the expedition of Cœsar into Egypt, after the battle at Pharsalus, Auct. B. Alex. 1.
- B. In Troas, Plin. 15, 30, 39, § 131; 23, 8, 80, § 158.
Subst.: Ălexandrīni, ōrum, m., inhabitants of Alexandria (in Egypt): ad Alexandrinos istos revertamur, Cic. Rab. Post. 12, 34; id. Pis. 21, 49.
† ălexĭpharmăcon, i, n., = ἀλεξιφάρμακον, an antidote for poison, only in Plin. 21, 20, 84, § 146.
1. Ālĭus (better Ālĕus), a, um, adj., = Elius (v. Alis and Elis), Elian; subst., a native of Elis, a town in Achaia (only a few times in Plaut. Capt.): postquam belligerant Aetoli cum Aleis, Plaut. Capt. prol. 24; 27; 2, 2, 30.
Hălēsa (Halaesa and Alēsa), ae, f., = Ἇλαισα,
- I. a town on the northern coast of Sicily, on the river Halesus, now ruins near the village Iusa, Sil. 14, 218; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 19; 2, 2, 75, § 185.
- II. Deriv. Hălēsīnus (Halaes- and Alēs-), a, um, adj., of or belonging to Halesa: civitas, Cic. Fam. 13, 32, 1: Dio, of Halesa, id. Verr. 2, 2, 7, § 19; 2, 3, 73.
Subst.: Hă-lēsīni, ōrum, m. plur., the inhabitants of Halesa, Halesines, Plin. 3, 8, 14, § 91.
Hălēsus (Halaesus and Alēsus), i, m., = Ἇλαισος.
- I. Son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra or Brisēis, the founder of Falisci, Verg. A. 7, 724; 10, 352; 411; Ov. F. 4, 73; id. Am. 3, 13, 31.
- II. One of the Lapithœ, Ov. M. 12, 462.
- III. A small river on the northern coast of Sicily, on which the town Halesa was situated, Col. poët. 10, 268; Sol. 5, 20.